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Antibody Immunity and Natural Resistance to Cryptococcosis

  • Nuria Trevijano-Contador
  • Liise-anne PirofskiEmail author
Tropical Mycosis (L Martinez, Section Editor)
  • 10 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Tropical Mycosis

Abstract

Purpose of Review

To review recent data on the role that B cells and/or antibody-based immunity play in host defense against Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn).

Recent Findings

Cn, an encapsulated fungus, causes cryptococcal meningitis (CM). There are ~180,000 deaths per year worldwide attributed to CM, which is the most common cause of meningitis in adults with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV infection with advanced immunodeficiency is the most important predisposing risk factor for CM, highlighting the critical role that T cell-mediated immunity plays in disease prevention. However, numerous studies in the past decade demonstrate that antibody immunity also plays a role in resistance to CM. In mice, B cells reduce early dissemination from the lungs to the brain, and naïve mouse IgM can enhance fungal containment in the lungs. In concert with these findings, human studies show that patients with CM have lower IgM memory B cell levels and/or different serum profiles of Cn-binding and natural antibodies than controls.

Summary

There is sufficient evidence to support a possible role for B cells and certain antibodies in natural resistance to CM. This underscores the need for a deeper understanding of mechanisms by which natural and Cn-binding antibodies may reduce Cn virulence and protect against Cn dissemination and human CM.

Keywords

Cryptococcus neoformans B cells Antibodies IgM Host immunity Adaptive response 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Liise-anne Pirofski was supported in part by NIH Grant AI097096.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Nuria Trevijano-Contador and Liise-anne Pirofski declare no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nuria Trevijano-Contador
    • 1
  • Liise-anne Pirofski
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of MedicineAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology & ImmunologyAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  3. 3.Biomedical Research, Division of Infectious DiseasesAlbert Einstein College of Medicine & Montefiore Medical CenterBronxUSA

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