Current Developmental Disorders Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 49–57 | Cite as

Trends in the Overlap of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Prevalence, Clinical Management, Language and Genetics

  • T. May
  • A. Brignell
  • Z. Hawi
  • A. Brereton
  • B. Tonge
  • M. A. Bellgrove
  • N. J. Rinehart
Autism Spectrum (A Richdale and L Hollier, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Autism Specrtum


Purpose of Review

To review recent literature on the overlap of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), now both conditions can be dually diagnosed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders 5th edition.

Recent Findings

There is a high comorbidity with rates of comorbid ASD and ADHD ranging from 40 to 83%. Multidisciplinary assessment and management of the combined presentation is thus required. Language difficulties are a common comorbidity in both ASD and ADHD with around 60% of children with ASD and 40% of those with ADHD having language problems. Twin studies show up to 72% of the co-variance of ADHD, and ASD symptoms can be explained by shared additive genetic factors providing a genetic basis for the observed clinical overlap.


There are still many gaps in our knowledge with limited research exploring well-defined groups of children with ASD only, ADHD only and ASD with ADHD. Clinicians should thoroughly assess ADHD symptomatology in children with ASD and vice versa to understand the challenges for these children and inform treatment planning.


Autism spectrum disorder Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Comorbidity Treatment Language 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


  1. 1.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publications; 2013. Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thomas R, Sanders S, Doust J, Beller E, Glasziou P. Prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2015;135(4):e994–e1001. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vitola ES, Bau CHD, Salum GA, Horta BL, Quevedo L, Barros FC, et al. Exploring DSM-5 ADHD criteria beyond young adulthood: phenomenology, psychometric properties and prevalence in a large three-decade birth cohort. Psychol Med. 2016;47(4):744–54. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Moffitt TE, Houts R, Asherson P, Belsky DW, Corcoran DL, Hammerle M, et al. Is adult ADHD a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder? Evidence from a four-decade longitudinal cohort study. Am J Psychiatr. 2015;172(10):967–77. Scholar
  5. 5.
    May T, Sciberras E, Brignell A, Williams K. Autism spectrum disorder: updated prevalence and comparison of two birth cohorts in a nationally representative Australian sample. BMJ Open. 2017;7(5):e015549. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Loomes R, Hull L, Mandy WPL. What is the male-to-female ratio in autism spectrum disorder? A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017;56(6):466–74.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hansen SN, Schendel DE, Parner ET. Explaining the increase in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders: the proportion attributable to changes in reporting practices. JAMA Pediatr. 2015;169(1):56–62. Scholar
  8. 8.
    APA. DSM IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tsai LY. Prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. J Exp Clin Med. 2014;6(6):179–86. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Leyfer OT, Folstein SE, Bacalman S, Davis NO, Dinh E, Morgan J, et al. Comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism: interview development and rates of disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006;36(7):849–61. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gjevik E, Eldevik S, Fjæran-Granum T, Sponheim E. Kiddie-SADS reveals high rates of DSM-IV disorders in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2011;41(6):761–9. Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jensen CM, Steinhausen H-C. Comorbid mental disorders in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a large nationwide study. ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disord. 2015;7(1):27–38. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Salazar F, Baird G, Chandler S, Tseng E, O’sullivan T, Howlin P, et al. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders in preschool and elementary school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2015;45(8):2283–94. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grzadzinski R, Dick C, Lord C, Bishop S. Parent-reported and clinician-observed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): implications for practice under DSM-5. Mol Autism. 2016;7(1):7. Scholar
  15. 15.
    Joshi G, Faraone SV, Wozniak J, Tarko L, Fried R, Galdo M, et al. Symptom profile of ADHD in youth with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: a comparative study in psychiatrically referred populations. J Atten Disord. 2017;21(10):846–55. Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mukaddes NM, Hergüner S, Tanidir C. Psychiatric disorders in individuals with high-functioning autism and Asperger’s disorder: similarities and differences. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2010;11(8):964–71. Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sinzig J, Walter D, Doepfner M. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: symptom or syndrome? J Atten Disord. 2009;13(2):117–26. Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mansour R, Dovi AT, Lane DM, Loveland KA, Pearson DA. ADHD severity as it relates to comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Res Dev Disabil. 2017;60:52–64. Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cooper M, Martin J, Langley K, Hamshere M, Thapar A. Autistic traits in children with ADHD index clinical and cognitive problems. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014;23(1):23–34. Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hartman CA, Geurts HM, Franke B, Buitelaar JK, Rommelse NN. Changing ASD-ADHD symptom co-occurrence across the lifespan with adolescence as crucial time window: illustrating the need to go beyond childhood. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016;71:529–41. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tonge BJ, Einfeld SL. Psychopathology and intellectual disability: the Australian child to adult longitudinal study. Int Rev Res Ment Retard. 2003;26:61–91. Scholar
  22. 22.
    National Institute of Clinical Excellence. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis and management of ADHD in children, young people and adults. National Clinical Practice Guideline number 72. London: The British Psychological Society and the Royal College of Psychiatrists; 2009.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Management of attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorders in children and young people: a national clinical guideline. Edinburgh: SIGN; 2009.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Subcommittee on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, steering committee on quality improvement and management. ADHD: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 2011;128(5):1007–22.
  25. 25.
    Tonge BJ, Bull K, Brereton A, Wilson R. A review of evidence-based early intervention for behavioural problems in children with autism spectrum disorder: the core components of effective programs, child-focused interventions and comprehensive treatment models. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2014;27(2):158–65. Scholar
  26. 26.
    DuPaul GJ, Eckert TL, Vilardo B. The effects of school-based interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis 1996-2010. Sch Psychol Rev. 2012;41(4):387.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tonge B. Principles for managing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Aust Prescr. 2013;36(5):162–65.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rowe KS, Rowe KJ. Synthetic food coloring and behavior: a dose response effect in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study. J Pediatr. 1994;125(5):691–8. Scholar
  29. 29.
    Autism P. Randomized, controlled, crossover trial of methylphenidate in pervasive developmental disorders with hyperactivity. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62:1266–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sung M, Chin CH, Lim CG, Liew HSA, Lim CS, Kashala E, et al. What’s in the pipeline? Drugs in development for autism spectrum disorder. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014;10:371.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Siegel M, Beaulieu AA. Psychotropic medications in children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and synthesis for evidence-based practice. J Autism Dev Disord. 2012;42(8):1592–605. Scholar
  32. 32.
    Williamson ED, Martin A. Psychotropic medications in autism: practical considerations for parents. J Autism Dev Disord. 2012;42(6):1249–55. Scholar
  33. 33.
    Santosh P, Baird G, Pityaratstian N, Tavare E, Gringras P. Impact of comorbid autism spectrum disorders on stimulant response in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a retrospective and prospective effectiveness study. Child Care Health Dev. 2006;32(5):575–83. Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hazell P. Drug therapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-like symptoms in autistic disorder. J Paediatr Child Health. 2007;43(1–2):19–24. Scholar
  35. 35.
    Taylor D, Paton C, Kapur S. The Maudsley prescribing guidelines in psychiatry: John Wiley & Sons; 2015. UK: West Sussex.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Arnold LE, Aman MG, Cook AM, Witwer AN, Hall KL, Thompson S, et al. Atomoxetine for hyperactivity in autism spectrum disorders: placebo-controlled crossover pilot trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;45(10):1196–205. Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ghanizadeh A. Atomoxetine for treating ADHD symptoms in autism: a systematic review. J Atten Disord. 2013;17(8):635–40. Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jesner OS, Aref-Adib M, Coren E. Risperidone for autism spectrum disorder Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(1).
  39. 39.
    Ching H, Pringsheim T. Aripiprazole for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(5).
  40. 40.
    Matson JL, Hess JA. Psychotropic drug efficacy and side effects for persons with autism spectrum disorders. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2011;5(1):230–6. Scholar
  41. 41.
    Handen BL, Sahl R, Hardan AY. Guanfacine in children with autism and/or intellectual disabilities. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2008;29(4):303–8. Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ming X, Gordon E, Kang N, Wagner GC. Use of clonidine in children with autism spectrum disorders. Brain Dev. 2008;30(7):454–60. Scholar
  43. 43.
    Aman MG, Farmer CA, Hollway J, Arnold LE. Treatment of inattention, overactivity, and impulsiveness in autism spectrum disorders. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2008;17(4):713–38. Scholar
  44. 44.
    NHMRC. Clinical practice points: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. NHMRC Council: Canberra; 2012.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Levy SE, Giarelli E, Lee L-C, Schieve LA, Kirby RS, Cunniff C, et al. Autism spectrum disorder and co-occurring developmental, psychiatric, and medical conditions among children in multiple populations of the United States. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2010;31(4):267–75. Scholar
  46. 46.
    Posserud M, Hysing M, Helland W, Gillberg C, Lundervold AJ. Autism traits: the importance of “co-morbid” problems for impairment and contact with services. Data from the Bergen Child Study. Res Dev Disabil. 2016;72:275–83. Scholar
  47. 47.
    Norrelgen F, Fernell E, Eriksson M, Hedvall Å, Persson C, Sjölin M, et al. Children with autism spectrum disorders who do not develop phrase speech in the preschool years. Autism. 2014;19(8):934–43. Scholar
  48. 48.
    Redmond SM. Language impairment in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder context. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2016;59(1):133–42. Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sciberras E, Mueller KL, Efron D, Bisset M, Anderson V, Schilpzand EJ, et al. Language problems in children with ADHD: a community-based study. Pediatrics. 2014;133(5):793–800. Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tirosh E, Cohen A. Language deficit with attention-deficit disorder: a prevalent comorbidity. J Child Neurol. 1998;13(10):493–7. Scholar
  51. 51.
    Redmond SM. Markers, models, and measurement error: exploring the links between attention deficits and language impairments. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2016;59(1):62–71. Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tager-Flusberg H. Risk factors associated with language in autism spectrum disorder: clues to underlying mechanisms. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2016;59(1):143–54. Scholar
  53. 53.
    Whitehouse AJ, Barry JG, Bishop DV. Further defining the language impairment of autism: is there a specific language impairment subtype? J Commun Disord. 2008;41(4):319–36. Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gernsbacher MA, Morson EM, Grace EJ. Language and speech in autism. Annu Rev Linguist. 2016;2(1):413–25. Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kjelgaard MM, Tager-Flusberg H. An investigation of language impairment in autism: implications for genetic subgroups. Lang Cogn Process. 2001;16(2–3):287–308. Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tager-Flusberg H. Defining language impairments in a subgroup of children with autism spectrum disorder. Sci China Life Sci. 2015;58(10):1044–52. Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tager-Flusberg H. Defining language phenotypes in autism. Clin Neurosci Res. 2006(3–4):219.
  58. 58.
    Paul R, Roth FP. Characterizing and predicting outcomes of communication delays in infants and toddlers: implications for clinical practice. Lang Speech Hear Serv Schools. 2011;42(3):331–40. Scholar
  59. 59.
    Williams K, Brignell A, Prior M, Bartak L, Roberts J. Regression in autism spectrum disorders. J Paediatr Child Health. 2015;51(1):61–4. Scholar
  60. 60.
    Barger BD, Campbell JM, McDonough JD. Prevalence and onset of regression within autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analytic review. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013;43(4):817–28. Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ozonoff S, Iosif A-M, Baguio F, Cook IC, Hill MM, Hutman T, et al. A prospective study of the emergence of early behavioral signs of autism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;49(3):256–66.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Roberts J. Echolalia and language development in children with autism. In: Arciuli J, Brock J, editors. Communication in autism. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2014. p. 55–73.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    McEvoy RE, Loveland KA, Landry SH. The functions of immediate echolalia in autistic children: a developmental perspective. J Autism Child Schizophr. 1988;18(4):657–68.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Prizant BM, Rydell PJ. Analysis of functions of delayed echolalia in autistic children. J Speech Hear Res. 1984;27(2):183–92. Scholar
  65. 65.
    Seung HK. Linguistic characteristics of individuals with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. Clin Linguist Phon. 2007;21(4):247–59. Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hudry K, Leadbitter K, Temple K, Slonims V, McConachie H, Aldred C, et al. Preschoolers with autism show greater impairment in receptive compared with expressive language abilities. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2010;45(6):681–90. Scholar
  67. 67.
    Volden J, Smith IM, Szatmari P, Bryson S, Fombonne E, Mirenda P, et al. Using the Preschool Language Scale, fourth edition to characterize language in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2011;20(3):200–8. Scholar
  68. 68.
    van Santen JP, Sproat RW, Hill AP. Quantifying repetitive speech in autism spectrum disorders and language impairment. Autism Res. 2013;6(5):372–83. Scholar
  69. 69.
    Evans KE, Demuth K. Individual differences in pronoun reversal: evidence from two longitudinal case studies. J Child Lang. 2012;39(1):162–91. Scholar
  70. 70.
    Brignell A, Williams K, Prior M, Donath S, Reilly S, Bavin EL, et al. Parent-reported patterns of loss and gain in communication in 1- to 2-year-old children are not unique to autism spectrum disorder. Autism. 2016;21(3):344–56. Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kwok EYL, Brown HM, Smyth RE, Oram CJ. Meta-analysis of receptive and expressive language skills in autism spectrum disorder. Res Autism Spectrum Disord. 2015;9:202–22. Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tek S, Mesite L, Fein D, Naigles L. Longitudinal analyses of expressive language development reveal two distinct language profiles among young children with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2014;44(1):75–89. Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lombardo MV, Pierce K, Eyler LT, Carter Barnes C, Ahrens-Barbeau C, Solso S, et al. Different functional neural substrates for good and poor language outcome in autism. Neuron. 2015;86(2):567–77. Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ellis Weismer S, Kover ST. Preschool language variation, growth, and predictors in children on the autism spectrum. J Child Psychol Psychiatry Allied Discip. 2015;56(12):1327–37. Scholar
  75. 75.
    Stone WL, Yoder PJ. Predicting spoken language level in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism. 2001;5(4):341–61. Scholar
  76. 76.
    Wodka E, Mathy P, Kalb L. Predictors of phrase and fluent speech in children with autism and severe language delay. Pediatrics. 2013;131(4):1128–34. Scholar
  77. 77.
    Thurm A, Manwaring SS, Swineford L, Farmer C. Longitudinal study of symptom severity and language in minimally verbal children with autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry Allied Discip. 2015;56(1):97–104. Scholar
  78. 78.
    Geurts H, Embrechts M. Language profiles in ASD, SLI, and ADHD. J Autism Dev Disord. 2008;38(10):1931–43. Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mueller KL, Tomblin JB. Examining the comorbidity of language disorders and ADHD. Top Lang Disord. 2012;32(3):228–46. Scholar
  80. 80.
    Korrel H, Mueller KL, Silk T, Anderson V, Sciberras E. Research review: language problems in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder—a systematic meta-analytic review. J Child Psychol Psychiatry Allied Discip. 2017;58(6):640–54. Scholar
  81. 81.
    Redmond SM. Differentiating SLI from ADHD using children’s sentence recall and production of past tense morphology. Clin Linguist Phon. 2005;19(2):109–27. Scholar
  82. 82.
    Cohen NJ, Vallance DD, Barwick M, Im N, Menna R, Horodezky NB, et al. The interface between ADHD and language impairment: an examination of language, achievement, and cognitive processing. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2000;41(3):353–62. Scholar
  83. 83.
    Green BC, Johnson KA, Bretherton L. Pragmatic language difficulties in children with hyperactivity and attention problems: an integrated review. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2014;49(1):15–29. Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bishop DV, Baird G. Parent and teacher report of pragmatic aspects of communication: use of the children’s communication checklist in a clinical setting. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2001;43(12):809–18. Scholar
  85. 85.
    Redmond SM. Conversational profiles of children with ADHD, SLI and typical development. Clin Linguist Phon. 2004;18(2):107–25. Scholar
  86. 86.
    Redmond SM, Ash AC, Hogan TP. Consequences of co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on children’s language impairments. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch. 2015;46(2):68–80. Scholar
  87. 87.
    Miniscalco C, Hagberg B, Kadesjo B, Westerlund M, Gillberg C. Narrative skills, cognitive profiles and neuropsychiatric disorders in 7–8-year-old children with late developing language. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2007;42(6):665–81. Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rice ML. Specific language impairment, nonverbal IQ, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, cochlear implants, bilingualism, and dialectal variants: defining the boundaries, clarifying clinical conditions, and sorting out causes. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2016;59(1):122–32. Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gernsbacher MA, Stevenson JL, Dern S. Specificity, contexts, and reference groups matter when assessing autistic traits. PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0171931. Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rommelse NN, Geurts HM, Franke B, Buitelaar JK, Hartman CA. A review on cognitive and brain endophenotypes that may be common in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and facilitate the search for pleiotropic genes. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011;35(6):1363–96. Scholar
  91. 91.
    Cohen MJ, Meador KJ, Browning N, Baker GA, Clayton-Smith J, Kalayjian LA, et al. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: motor, adaptive, and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 3 years. Epilepsy Behav. 2011;22(2):240–6. Scholar
  92. 92.
    Johnson S, Hollis C, Kochhar P, Hennessy E, Wolke D, Marlow N. Psychiatric disorders in extremely preterm children: longitudinal finding at age 11 years in the EPICure study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;49(5):453–63. e1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Nomura Y, Marks DJ, Grossman B, Yoon M, Loudon H, Stone J, et al. Exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and low socioeconomic status: effects on neurocognitive development and risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166(4):337–43. Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lyall K, Pauls DL, Spiegelman D, Ascherio A, Santangelo SL. Pregnancy complications and obstetric suboptimality in association with autism spectrum disorders in children of the Nurses’ Health Study II. Autism Res. 2012;5(1):21–30. Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bailey A, Le Couteur A, Gottesman I, Bolton P, Simonoff E, Yuzda E, et al. Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: evidence from a British twin study. Psychol Med. 1995;25(1):63–77. Scholar
  96. 96.
    Levy F, Hay DA, McSTEPHEN M, Wood C, Waldman I. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a category or a continuum? Genetic analysis of a large-scale twin study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36(6):737–44. Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ronald A, Simonoff E, Kuntsi J, Asherson P, Plomin R. Evidence for overlapping genetic influences on autistic and ADHD behaviours in a community twin sample. J Child Psychol Psychiatry Allied Discip. 2008;49(5):535–42. Scholar
  98. 98.
    Martin J, O'Donovan MC, Thapar A, Langley K, Williams N. The relative contribution of common and rare genetic variants to ADHD. Transl Psychiatry. 2015;5(2):e506. Scholar
  99. 99.
    Weiner DJ, Wigdor EM, Ripke S, Walters RK, Kosmicki JA, Grove J et al. Polygenic transmission disequilibrium confirms that common and rare variation act additively to create risk for autism spectrum disorders. Nat Genet. 2017;49(7):978.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Smalley SL, Asarnow RF, Spence MA. Autism and genetics: a decade of research. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988;45(10):953–61. Scholar
  101. 101.
    Bailey A, Hervas A, Matthews N, Palferman S, Wallace S, Aubin A, et al. A full genome screen for autism with evidence for linkage to a region on chromosome 7q. International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium. Hum Mol Genet. 1998;7(3):571–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Liu J, Nyholt DR, Magnussen P, Parano E, Pavone P, Geschwind D, et al. A genomewide screen for autism susceptibility loci. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;69(2):327–40. Scholar
  103. 103.
    Philippe A, Martinez M, Guilloud-Bataille M, Gillberg C, Råstam M, Sponheim E, et al. Genome-wide scan for autism susceptibility genes. Hum Mol Genet. 1999;8(5):805–12. Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kent L, Doerry U, Hardy E, Parmar R, Gingell K, Hawi Z, et al. Evidence that variation at the serotonin transporter gene influences susceptibility to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): analysis and pooled analysis. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7(8):908–12. Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hawi Z, Tong J, Dark C, Yates H, Johnson B, Bellgrove MA. The role of cadherin genes in five major psychiatric disorders: a literature update. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2017.
  106. 106.
    Lasky-Su J, Neale BM, Franke B, Anney RJ, Zhou K, Maller JB, et al. Genome-wide association scan of quantitative traits for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder identifies novel associations and confirms candidate gene associations. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008;147(8):1345–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Chapman NH, Estes A, Munson J, Bernier R, Webb SJ, Rothstein JH, et al. Genome-scan for IQ discrepancy in autism: evidence for loci on chromosomes 10 and 16. Hum Genet. 2011;129(1):59–70. Scholar
  108. 108.
    Sanders SJ, Ercan-Sencicek AG, Hus V, Luo R, Murtha MT, Moreno-De-Luca D, et al. Multiple recurrent de novo CNVs, including duplications of the 7q11. 23 Williams syndrome region, are strongly associated with autism. Neuron. 2011;70(5):863–85. Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wang K, Zhang H, Ma D, Bucan M, Glessner JT, Abrahams BS, et al. Common genetic variants on 5p14. 1 associate with autism spectrum disorders. Nature. 2009;459(7246):528–33. Scholar
  110. 110.
    Consortium C-DGPG. Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders: a genome-wide analysis. Lancet. 2013;381(9875):1371–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Taurines R, Schwenck C, Westerwald E, Sachse M, Siniatchkin M, Freitag C. ADHD and autism: differential diagnosis or overlapping traits? A selective review. ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disord. 2012;4(3):115–39. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. May
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • A. Brignell
    • 2
  • Z. Hawi
    • 4
  • A. Brereton
    • 1
  • B. Tonge
    • 1
    • 5
  • M. A. Bellgrove
    • 4
  • N. J. Rinehart
    • 1
  1. 1.Deakin Child Study Centre, School of Psychology, Faculty of HealthDeakin University GeelongGeelongAustralia
  2. 2.Murdoch Childrens Research InstituteParkvilleAustralia
  3. 3.Deakin UniversityBurwoodAustralia
  4. 4.Monash Institute for Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences (MICCN), School of Psychological SciencesMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  5. 5.Centre for Developmental Psychology and PsychiatryMonash UniversityNotting HillAustralia

Personalised recommendations