Advertisement

Neurocognitive Processes Implicated in Adolescent Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors: Applying an RDoC Framework for Conceptualizing Risk

  • Jeremy G. Stewart
  • Lillian Polanco-Roman
  • Cristiane S. Duarte
  • Randy P. AuerbachEmail author
Suicide (R Liu, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Suicide

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Identifying risk factors for STBs during adolescence is essential for suicide prevention. In this review, we employ the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework to synthesize studies on key neurocognitive processes—cognitive control, reward responsiveness/valuation, and negative urgency—relevant to adolescent STBs.

Recent Findings

Within subdomains of cognitive control, studies of inhibition/suppression and updating/maintenance were mixed, while response selection (i.e., decision-making) deficits were consistently associated with suicide attempts. Fewer studies, by comparison, have probed the Positive Valence Systems. Relative to healthy controls, adolescents with prior STBs may show a blunted neural response to rewards and value rewards less, but findings require replication. Finally, negative urgency, which may span subdomains within both cognitive control and the Positive Valence Systems, was associated with recent suicide attempts in the only study to directly test this association.

Summary

Few studies have examined neurocognitive functioning in relation to adolescent STBs, despite the relevance of this research to detecting suicide risk. We recommend that future studies incorporate developmental contexts relevant to both neurocognitive processes and STBs.

Keywords

RDoC Suicide Cognitive control Reward responsiveness Negative urgency 

Notes

Funding Information

The project was supported through funding from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) U01MH116923 (RPA).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Disclaimer

The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health or NIMH.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2017). Web-based injury statistics query and reporting system (WISQARS). Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/injury/ wisqars/fatal.html.
  2. 2.
    Nock MK, Green JG, Hwang I, McLaughlin KA, Sampson NA, Zaslavsky AM, et al. Prevalence, correlates, and treatment of lifetime suicidal behavior among adolescents: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013;70:300–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Miller AB, Prinstein MJ. Adolescent suicide as a failure of acute stress-response systems. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2019;15:425–50.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050718-095625.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Franklin JC, Ribeiro JD, Fox KR, Bentley KH, Kleiman EM, Huang X, et al. Risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors: a meta-analysis of 50 years of research. Psychol Bull. 2017;143:187–232.  https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000084.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    •• Glenn CR, Cha CB, Kleiman EM, Nock MK. Understanding suicide risk within the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework: insights, challenges, and future research considerations. Clin Psychol Sci. 2017;5:568–92 This article provides a broad overview of how RDoC domains and constructs can be used to organize research on correlates and risk factors for STBs. The authors provide methodological recommendations to enhance the application of the RDoC to suicide science.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Glenn CR, Kleiman EM, Cha CB, Deming CA, Franklin JC, Nock MK. Understanding suicide risk within the research domain criteria (RDoC) framework: a meta-analytic review. Depress Anxiety. 2018;35:65–88.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22686.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nock MK, Kessler RC, Franklin JC. Risk factors for suicide ideation differ from those for the transition to suicide attempt: the importance of creativity, rigor, and urgency in suicide research. Clin Psychol Sci Pr. 2016;23:31–4.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cpsp.12133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mann JJ, Waternaux C, Haas GL, Malone KM. Toward a clinical model of suicidal behavior in psychiatric patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:181–9.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.156.2.181.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    O'Connor RC, Kirtley OJ. The integrated motivational–volitional model of suicidal behaviour. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2018;373:20170268.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Richard-Devantoy S, Berlim MT, Jollant F. A meta-analysis of neuropsychological markers of vulnerability to suicidal behavior in mood disorders. Psychol Med. 2014;44:1663–73.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291713002304.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    • Zelazny J, Melhem N, Porta G, Biernesser C, Keilp JG, Mann JJ, et al. Childhood maltreatment, neuropsychological function and suicidal behavior. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2019.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13096This study included 382 offspring of depressed parents (mean age 14.83) who completed a broad neuropsychological assessment that captured several aspects of cognitive control (i.e., inhibition, interference suppression, and updating/maintenance). In this sample, poorer inhibition and interference suppression were associated with suicide attempts, but sustained attention (measured by a continuous performance task) was not.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pan LA, Batezati-Alves SC, Almeida JR, Segreti A, Akkal D, Hassel S, et al. Dissociable patterns of neural activity during response inhibition in depressed adolescents with and without suicidal behavior. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;50:602–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dougherty DM, Mathias CW, Marsh-Richard DM, Prevette KN, Dawes MA, Hatzis ES, et al. Impulsivity and clinical symptoms among adolescents with non-suicidal self-injury with or without attempted suicide. Psychiatry Res. 2009;169:22–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2008.06.011.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mathias CW, Dougherty DM, James LM, Richard DM, Dawes MA, Acheson A, et al. Intolerance to delayed reward in girls with multiple suicide attempts. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2011;41:277–86.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1943-278X.2011.00027.x.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sommerfeldt SL, Cullen KR, Han G, Fryza BJ, Houri AK, Klimes-Dougan B. Executive attention impairment in adolescents with major depressive disorder. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2016;45:69–83.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2015.1072823.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    • Stewart JG, Glenn CR, Esposito EC, Cha CB, Nock MK, Auerbach RP. Cognitive control deficits differentiate adolescent suicide ideators from attempters. J Clin Psychiatry. 2017;78:e614–21.  https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.16m10647This study examined cognitive control using the Suicide Stroop Task in a sample of adolescent suicide ideators and attempters. Relative to ideators, attempters showed control deficits in the context of all emotional stimuli, regardless of valence (i.e., positive, negative, suicide-relevant).PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kaufman EA, Crowell SE, Coleman J, Puzia ME, Gray DD, Strayer DL. Electroencephalographic and cardiovascular markers of vulnerability within families of suicidal adolescents: a pilot study. Biol Psychol. 2018;136:46–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2018.05.007.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Horesh N. Self-report vs. computerized measures of impulsivity as a correlate of suicidal behavior. Crisis. 2001;22:27–31.  https://doi.org/10.1027//0227-5910.22.1.27.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stewart JG, Kim JC, Esposito EC, Gold J, Nock MK, Auerbach RP. Predicting suicide attempts in depressed adolescents: clarifying the role of disinhibition and childhood sexual abuse. J Affect Disorders. 2015;187:27–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.08.034.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bridge JA, McBee-Strayer SM, Cannon EA, Sheftall AH, Reynolds B, Campo JV, et al. Impaired decision making in adolescent suicide attempters. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;51:394–403.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2012.01.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ackerman JP, McBee-Strayer SM, Mendoza K, Stevens J, Sheftall AH, Campo JV, et al. Risk-sensitive decision-making deficit in adolescent suicide attempters. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2015;25:109–13.  https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2014.0041.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sheftall AH, Davidson DJ, McBee-Strayer SM, Ackerman JP, Mendoza K, Reynolds B, et al. Decision-making in adolescents with suicidal ideation: a case-control study. Psychiatry Res. 2015;228:928–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.077.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Auerbach RP, Millner AJ, Stewart JG, Esposito EC. Identifying differences between depressed adolescent suicide ideators and attempters. J Aff Disord. 2015;186:127–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.06.031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nock MK, Kazdin AE. Examination of affective, cognitive, and behavioral factors and suicide-related outcomes in children and young adolescents. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2002;31:48–58.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3101_07.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brausch AM, Gutierrez PM. Differences in non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts in adolescents. J Youth Adolesc. 2010;39:233–42.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-009-9482-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stewart JG, Esposito EC, Glenn CR, Gilman SE, Pridgen B, Gold J, et al. Adolescent self-injurers: comparing non-ideators, suicide ideators, and suicide attempters. J Psychiatry Res. 2017;84:105–12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2016.09.031.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stewart JG, Shields GS, Esposito EC, Cosby EA, Allen NB, Slavich GM, et al. Life stress and suicide in adolescents. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2019;47:1707–22.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-019-00534-5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    • Tsypes A, Owens M, Gibb BE. Blunted neural reward responsiveness in children with recent suicidal ideation. Clin Psychol Sci. 2019.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702619856341This study examined reward responsiveness among children 7–11 years old with (n= 23) and without (n= 46) recent suicide ideation (SI). The authors found that the Reward Positivity was smaller among children with recent SI relative to controls, suggesting that SI may be associated with blunted reward responsiveness.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tsypes A, Owens M, Hajcak G, Gibb BE. Neural responses to gains and losses in children of suicide attempters. J Abnorm Psychol. 2017;126:237–43.  https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000237.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Baumeister RF. Suicide as escape from self. Psychol Rev. 1990;97:90–113.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-295X.97.1.90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Linehan MM. Cognitive behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New Yor: Guilford Press; 1993.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Williams M. Suicide and attempted suicide: understanding the cry of pain. London: Penguin Books Ltd; 2001.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Klonsky ED, Saffer BY, Bryan CJ. Ideation-to-action theories of suicide: a conceptual and empirical update. Curr Opin Psychol. 2018;22:38–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Keilp JG, Gorlyn M, Russell M, Oquendo MA, Burke AK, Harkavy-Friedman J, et al. Neuropsychological function and suicidal behavior: attention control, memory and executive dysfunction in suicide attempt. Psychol Med. 2013;43:39–551.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291712001419.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cha CB, Najmi S, Park JM, Finn CT, Nock MK. Attentional bias toward suicide-related stimuli predicts suicidal behavior. J Abnorm Psychol. 2010;119:616–22.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019710.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wilson KM, Millner AJ, Auerbach RP, Glenn CR, Kearns JC, Kirtley OJ, et al. Investigating the psychometric properties of the Suicide Stroop Task. Psychol Assess. 2019;31:1052–61.  https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bechara A, Damasio H, Damasio AR, Anderson SW. Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition. 1994;50:7–15.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(94)90018-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Klonsky ED, May AM. Differentiating suicide attempters from suicide ideators: a critical frontier for suicidology research. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2014;44:1–5.  https://doi.org/10.1111/sltb.12068.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Miller EK, Cohen JD. An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2001;24:167–202.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.167.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pan LA, Hassel S, Segreti AM, Nau SA, Brent DA, Phillips ML. Differential patterns of activity and functional connectivity in emotion processing neural circuitry to angry and happy faces in adolescents with and without suicide attempt. Psychol Med. 2013;43:2129–42.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291712002966.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Johnston JAY, Wang F, Liu J, Blond BN, Wallace A, Liu J, et al. Multimodal neuroimaging of frontolimbic structure and function associated with suicide attempts in adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2017;174:667–75.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.15050652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rizvi SJ, Pizzagalli DA, Sproule BA, Kennedy SH. Assessing anhedonia in depression: potentials and pitfalls. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016;65:21–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.03.004.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Auerbach RP, Pagliaccio D, Pizzagalli DA. Toward an improved understanding of anhedonia. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019;76:571–3.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.4600.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Carlson JM, Foti D, Mujica-Parodi LR, Harmon-Jones E, Hajcak G. Ventral striatal and medial prefrontal BOLD activation is correlated with reward-related electrocortical activity: a combined ERP and fMRI study. Neuroimage. 2011;57:1608–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.05.037.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Proudfit GH. The reward positivity: from basic research on reward to a biomarker for depression. Psychophysiology. 2015;52:449–59.  https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12370.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Foti D, Weinberg A, Dien J, Hajcak G. Event-related potential activity in the basal ganglia differentiates rewards from nonrewards: temporospatial principal components analysis and source localization of the feedback negativity. Hum Brain Mapp. 2011;32:2207–16.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.21182.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sauder CL, Derbidge CM, Beauchaine TP. Neural responses to monetary incentives among self-injuring adolescent girls. Dev Psychopathol. 2016;28:277–91.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579415000449.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gold JM, Strauss GP, Waltz JA, Robinson BM, Brown JK, Frank MJ. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with abnormal effort-cost computations. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;74:130–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Knutson B, Westdorp A, Kaiser E, Hommer D. FMRI visualization of brain activity during a monetary incentive delay task. Neuroimage. 2000;12:20–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Depue RA, Collins PF. Neurobiology of the structure of personality: dopamine, facilitation of incentive motivation, and extraversion. Behav Brain Sci. 1999;22:491–517.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Beauchaine TP, Zisner AR, Sauder CL. Trait impulsivity and the externalizing spectrum. Ann Rev Clin Psychol. 2017;13:343–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Anestis MD, Soberay KA, Gutierrez PM, Hernández TD, Joiner TE. Reconsidering the link between impulsivity and suicidal behavior. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2014;18:366–86.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cyders MA, Smith GT. Emotion-based dispositions to rash action: positive and negative urgency. Psychol Bull. 2008;134:807–28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Klonsky ED, May A. Rethinking impulsivity in suicide. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2010;40:612–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Liu RT, Trout ZM, Hernandez EM, Cheek SM, Gerlus N. A behavioral and cognitive neuroscience perspective on impulsivity, suicide, and non-suicidal self-injury: meta-analysis and recommendations for future research. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2017;83:440–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    • Millner AJ, Lee MD, Hoyt K, Buckholtz JW, Auerbach RP, Nock MK. Are suicide attempters more impulsive than suicide ideators? Gen Hospital Psychiatry. 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2018.08.002This study examined trait negative urgency among recent (past 2 weeks) suicide attempters, suicide ideators, and healthy controls. The authors found that negative urgency, but not other forms of impulsivity, differentiated attempters from ideators and controls.
  57. 57.
    Smith GT, Cyders MA. Integrating affect and impulsivity: the role of positive and negative urgency in substance use risk. Drug Alcohol Depen. 2016;163:S3–S12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Racine SE, Burt SA, Keel PK, Sisk CL, Neale MC, Boker S, et al. Examining associations between negative urgency and key components of objective binge episodes. Int J Eat Disord. 2015;48:527–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Berg JM, Latzman RD, Bliwise NG, Lilienfeld SO. Parsing the heterogeneity of impulsivity: a meta-analytic review of the behavioral implications of the UPPS for psychopathology. Psychol Assess. 2015;27:1129–46.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Stewart JG, Valeri L, Esposito EC, Auerbach RP. Peer victimization and suicidal thoughts and behaviors in depressed adolescents. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2018;46:581–96.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Carver CS, Johnson SL, Joormann J, Kim Y, Nam JY. Serotonin transporter polymorphism interacts with childhood adversity to predict aspects of impulsivity. Psychol Sci. 2011;22:589–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    • Auerbach RP, Stewart JG, Johnson SL. Impulsivity and suicidality in adolescent inpatients. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2017;45:91–103 This is the only study to date that has directly examined relations between negative urgency and STBs among adolescents. In a sample of adolescent inpatients, negative urgency was associated with more frequent recent suicide attempts, but not suicidal ideation or plans.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Muhlert N, Lawrence AD. Brain structure correlates of emotion-based rash impulsivity. NeuroImage. 2015;115:138–46.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chester DS, Lynam DR, Milich R, Powell DK, Andersen AH, DeWall CN. How do negative emotions impair self-control? A neural model of negative urgency. NeuroImage. 2016;132:43–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Barkley-Levenson E, Xue F, Droutman V, Miller LC, Smith BJ, Jeong D, et al. Prefrontal cortical activity during the Stroop task: new insights into the why and the who of real-world risky sexual behavior. Ann Behav Med. 2018;52:367–79.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Carver C, Johnson S. Impulsive reactivity to emotion and vulnerability to psychopathology. Am Psychol. 2018;73:1067–78.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wilbertz T, Deserno L, Horstmann A, Neumann J, Villringer A, Heinze H-J, et al. Response inhibition and its relation to multidimensional impulsivity. Neuroimage. 2014;103:241–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Millner AJ, Lee MD, Nock MK. Describing and measuring the pathway to suicide attempts: a preliminary study. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2017;47:353–69.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Johnson SL, Tharp JA, Peckham AD, Sanchez AH, Carver CS. Positive urgency is related to difficulty inhibiting prepotent responses. Emotion. 2016;16:750–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pearlstein JG, Johnson SL, Modavi K, Peckham AD, Carver CS. Neurocognitive mechanisms of emotion-related impulsivity: the role of arousal. Psychophysiology. 2019;56:e13293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Casey BJ, Oliveri ME, Insel T. A neurodevelopmental perspective on the research domain criteria (RDoC) framework. Biol Psychiatry. 2014;76:350–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Casey BJ, Jones RM, Todd HTA. The adolescent brain. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2008;1124:111–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Crone EA, Dahl RE. Understanding adolescence as a period of social-affective engagement and goal flexibility. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012;13:636–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Galván A, Hare T, Parra C, Penn J, Voss H, Glover G, et al. Earlier development of the accumbens relative to orbitofrontal cortex might underlie risk-taking behavior in adolescents. J Neurosci. 2006;26:6885–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Van Leijenhorst L, Zanolie K, Van Meel CS, Westenberg PM, Rombouts SA, Crone EA. What motivates the adolescent? Brain regions mediating reward sensitivity across adolescence. Cereb Cortex. 2009;20:61–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    •• Dahl RE, Allen NB, Wilbrecht L, Suleiman AB. Importance of investing in adolescence from a developmental science perspective. Nature. 2018;554:441–50 This review summarizes many of the neuro-maturational changes that occur in adolescence. The authors describe ways in which these changes impact cognition, motivation, and learning.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Klonsky ED, May AM. The three-step theory (3ST): A new theory of suicide rooted in the “ideation-to-action” framework. Int J Cogn Ther. 2015;8:114–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kasen S, Cohen P, Chen H. Developmental course of impulsivity and capability from age 10 to age 25 as related to trajectory of suicide attempt in a community cohort. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2011;41:180–92.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kaufman EA, Crowell SE, Lenzenweger MF. The development of borderline personality and self-inflicted injury. In: Beauchaine TP, Hinshaw SP, editors. Child and Adolescent Psychopathology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Inc. 2017;2017:642–79.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    • Nelson EE, Jarcho JM, Guyer AE. Social re-orientation and brain development: an expanded and updated view. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2016;17:118–27 This review describes a framework for understanding social processes at different stages of development (including adolescence). The authors illustrate how transactions between changes in brain function and broader social contexts at each developmental stage impact social behaviors.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Vergara GA, Stewart JG, Cosby EA, Lincoln SH, Auerbach RP. Non-suicidal self-injury and suicide in depressed adolescents: impact of peer victimization and bullying. J Affect Disorders. 2019;245:744–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Merikangas KR, He JP, Burstein M, Swanson SA, Avenevoli S, Cui L, et al. Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in US adolescents: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication–Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;49:980–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nelson BD, Perlman G, Klein DN, Kotov R, Hajcak G. Blunted neural response to rewards as a prospective predictor of the development of depression in adolescent girls. Am J Psychiatry. 2016;173:1223–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Brière FN, Rohde P, Seeley JR, Klein D, Lewinsohn PM. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment. Depress Anxiety. 2015;32:270–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Copeland WE, Goldston DB, Costello EJ. Adult associations of childhood suicidal thoughts and behaviors: a prospective, longitudinal analysis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017;56:958–65.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    McGirr A, Jollant F, Turecki G. Neurocognitive alterations in first degree relatives of suicide completers. J Affect Disorders. 2013;145:264–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Peckham AD, Johnson SL. Cognitive control training for emotion-related impulsivity. Behav Res Ther. 2018;105:17–26.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeremy G. Stewart
    • 1
  • Lillian Polanco-Roman
    • 2
    • 3
  • Cristiane S. Duarte
    • 2
    • 3
  • Randy P. Auerbach
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Psychology and Centre for Neuroscience StudiesQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.New York State Psychiatric InstituteNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Division of Clinical Developmental NeuroscienceSackler InstituteNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations