Frailty and Outcomes After Liver Transplantation

  • Elliot B. TapperEmail author
Frailty and Gerontology (M McAdams Demarco, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Frailty and Gerontology


Purpose of Review

Frailty is an emerging concept in liver transplantation. We reviewed the literature for the tests of frailty which have been validated to predict outcomes in patients with cirrhosis evaluated for liver transplantation.

Recent Findings

Several tools have been developed to further stratify risk of adverse events independent of liver disease severity. These include tests of disability such as activities of daily living and the Karnofsky Performance Score, as well as tests of physical frailty, such as the Liver Frailty Index (handgrip, chair stands, and balance).


Increasingly, the frailty assessment is seen as a critical component of the liver transplant evaluation. Further research is needed to clarify the optimal timing of testing and the implications of longitudinal change.


Liver disease Cirrhosis Portal hypertension Hepatic encephalopathy 



Elliot Tapper receives funding from the National Institutes of Health through the Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (KL2TR002241).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Elliot Tapper reports grants from Valeant and Gilead and personal fees from Novartis for a fatty liver disease study.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Elliot Tapper is the guarantor of this article.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology and HepatologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Gastroenterology SectionVA Ann Arbor Healthcare SystemAnn ArborUSA

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