Novel Nanoimaging Strategies for Noninvasive Graft Monitoring in Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation
This article focuses on the unmet needs and key challenges in vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) and the opportunities for current nanotechnology advances in therapeutics and diagnostics for personalized treatment and optimization of clinical outcomes. The transformative role of nanoimaging as a noninvasive tool in the longitudinal surveillance of acute and chronic rejection after VCA is critically reviewed. Nanoimaging can inform management decisions and guide continuous treatment adjustments over time in patients to improve safety and efficacy in VCA. Nanoimaging signatures can be unbiased and quantitative measures of treatment effectiveness as well as medication adherence, both of which are critical prerequisites for overall graft survival and patient quality of life.
KeywordsNanoimaging Immunomodulation Chronic rejection Acute rejection Monitoring Perfluorocarbons Nanoemulsions Imaging MRI NIRF PET
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Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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