Penile Reconstruction Versus Transplantation: Which One Is Ideal?
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Purpose of Review
Reconstruction of composite tissues or organs is challenging, with limited functional and esthetic outcomes. Nearly 100 years passed from the first penile reconstruction is performed; however, the outcomes were far from ideal. With the beginning of the reconstructive transplantation era, new choices became possible.
Until now, four penis transplantations were performed worldwide, with encouraging short-term results. Although with a short follow-up, these penile transplantations reported success. However, the problems related to systemic lifelong immunosuppression remain as the major problem related to these life-enhancing transplantations.
In this review, we revisit and evaluate the conventional methods of penis reconstruction, overview the up-to-date results of penis transplantation, and discuss advantages and disadvantages of these two techniques.
KeywordsVascularized composite allotransplantation Penile transplantation Penile reconstruction
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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