Current Transplantation Reports

, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 395–403 | Cite as

Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation: Medical Complications

  • Mehmet C. Uluer
  • Philip S. Brazio
  • Jhade D. Woodall
  • Arthur J. Nam
  • Stephen T. Bartlett
  • Rolf N. BarthEmail author
Vascularized Composite Allografts (L Cendales and R Barth, Section Editors)


The objective of this review is to summarize the collective knowledge regarding the risks and complications in vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation (VCA), focusing on upper extremity and facial transplantation. The field of VCA has entered its second decade with an increasing experience in both the impressive good outcomes, as well as defining challenges, risks, and experienced poor results. The limited and selective publishing of negative outcomes in this relatively new field makes it difficult to conclusively evaluate outcomes of graft and patient survival and morbidities. Therefore, published data, conference proceedings, and communications were summarized in an attempt to provide a current outline of complications. These data on the medical complications of VCA should allow for precautions to avoid poor outcomes, data to better provide informed consent to potential recipients, and result in improvements in graft and patient outcomes as VCA finds a place as a therapeutic option for selected patients.


Vascularized composite allotransplantation Vascularized composite allograft Facial transplantation Hand transplantation Complications Renal failure Rejection Malignancy Mortality 


Compliance with Ethical Standard

Conflict of Interest

Arthur Nam, Rolf Barth, Jhade Woodall, Mehmet Uluer, Philip Brazio, and Stephen Bartlet declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • of importance •• of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehmet C. Uluer
    • 1
  • Philip S. Brazio
    • 1
  • Jhade D. Woodall
    • 1
  • Arthur J. Nam
    • 1
  • Stephen T. Bartlett
    • 1
  • Rolf N. Barth
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Division of TransplantationUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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