Trends in Obesity and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
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Purpose of Review
The obesity epidemic is a global health crisis of staggering proportion. Excess body weight is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We review temporal trends in obesity rates, pertinent pathophysiology to understand mechanisms of disease, and treatment strategies in the context of reducing cardiovascular risk.
The prevalence of obesity is increasing in recent decades and is driven by a complex interplay of economic, environmental, and biological factors. In developed countries, changes in food intake, such as increased consumption of energy-dense and added sugar, have contributed significantly to weight gain. Single nucleotide variations in genes and alterations in the gut microbiome have been associated with the obese phenotype. The description of an obesity paradox in patients with CVD may have several explanations, including limitations of body mass index (BMI) to assess adiposity, selection bias, and lead-time bias with earlier onset of disease. Evidence-based treatments for weight loss include lifestyle intervention, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery. Data on the long-term effects of these therapies on cardiovascular risk are limited.
Overweight and obesity are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality over the lifespan. Despite our increasing understanding of biological and environmental drivers of obesity, more work is needed in developing effective prevention strategies and implementation of evidence-based treatments to promote cardiovascular health and reduce cardiovascular risk. Ultimately, efforts to prevent and postpone cardiovascular morbidity should include focus on maintenance of normal BMI (primordial prevention) for a longer and healthier life, free of CVD.
KeywordsOverweight Obesity Cardiovascular disease risk
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Ryan Lahey declares no conflicts of interest and Sadiya S. Khan reports grants from NIH/NHBLI, during the conduct of the study.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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