Cladding of aluminum alloy 6061-T6 to mild steel by an electromagnetic tube bulging process: finite element modeling

  • Zhi-Song Fan
  • Su-Ting Huang
  • Jiang-Hua DengEmail author


Bimetal tubes have useful applications in various industries where service conditions demand more different requirements in the tube core than its outside surface. The recent use of electromagnetic forces to deform or join metallic workpieces at high speeds has undergone rapid growth for materials processing. However, to date, no sufficient systematic understanding of the underlying principles of a subsequent high-speed electromagnetic tube bulging process to manufacture bimetal tubes has been gained. In this work, magnetic pulse cladding of Al/Fe clad bimetal tubes was analyzed by finite element modeling (FEM) using ANSYS software. The validity of FEM analyses was first confirmed by experiments in terms of the deformed shape. Second, the effect of cladding parameters (such as axial feeding being the dominant factor in the multi-step process) on the bulging and thinning behavior of the Al clad tube was presented in detail. Both the numerical simulation and experimental results show that no more than 70% of the bulging-coil length is an appropriate amount for the feeding length to prevent defects from being introduced by non-uniform deformation in the transition zone of the Al clad tube. The distributions of the magnetic flux line, magnetic force, and plastic strain in different cladding steps were then analyzed. It was concluded that during the multi-step cladding process, there was an uneven distribution of the magnetic field force along the transition zone. Consequently, inharmonious plastic deformation behavior occurs, which results in a limited acceleration of the transition zone to a certain impact velocity.


Bimetal tubes Magnetic pulse cladding Finite element (FE) simulation Axial feeding 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51705081, 51774097). The authors would like to thank the financial support from the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province (Grant No. 2018J05079); the Youth Teacher Educational Research fund of Fujian Provincial education office (Grant No. JAT170092); the Key Project of the Youth Natural Science Fund of Fujian Provincial University (Grant No. JZ160417); Fuzhou University Fund (Grant No. XRC-1676); Fuzhou University Testing Fund of Precious Apparatus (Grant No. 2017T020).


  1. 1.
    Lapovok R, Ng HP, Tomus D et al (2012) Bimetallic copper-aluminium tube by severe plastic deformation. Scr Mater 66(12):1081–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Li WY, Wen Q, Yang XW et al (2017) Interface microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of Al/Cu bimetallic tubes fabricated by a novel friction-based welding technology. Mater Des 134:383–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhan ZL, He YD, Wang D et al (2006) Cladding inner surface of steel tubes with Al foils by ball attrition and heat treatment. Surf Coat Technol 201(6):2684–2689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Balasubramanian V, Rathinasabapathi M, Raghukandan K (1997) Modeling of process parameters in explosive cladding of mild steel and aluminum. J Mater Process Technol 63(1–3):83–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Henryk D, Maciej P (1983) On the theory of the process of hot rolling of bimetal plate and sheet. J Mech Work Technol 8(4):309–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang XS, Li PN, Wang RZ (2005) Study on hydro-forming technology of manufacturing bi-metallic CRA-lined pipe. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45(4–5):373–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mohebbi MS, Akbarzadeh A (2010) A novel spin-bonding process for manufacturing multilayered clad tubes. J Mater Process Technol 210(3):510–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhang ZP, Xu WC, Gu TS et al (2018) Fabrication of steel/aluminum clad tube by spin bonding and annealing treatment. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 94(9–12):3605–3617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Krishna BV, Venugopal P, Rao KP (2005) Co-extrusion of dissimilar sintered P/M performs: an explored route to produce bi-metallic tubes. Mater Sci Eng A 407(1–2):77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Haghighat H, Mahdavi MM (2013) Analysis and FEM simulation of extrusion process of bimetal tubes through rotating conical dies. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 23(11):3392–3399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fan ZS, Yu HP, Meng FC et al (2016) Experimental investigation on fabrication of Al/Fe bi-metal tubes by the magnetic pulse cladding process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 83(5–8):1409–1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fan ZS, Yu HP, Li CF (2016) Plastic deformation behavior of bi-metal tubes during magnetic pulse cladding: FE analysis and experiments. J Mater Process Technol 229:230–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yu HP, Li CF (2007) Effects of coil length on tube compression in electromagnetic forming. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 17(6):1270–1275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mamalis AG, Manolakos DE, Kladas AG et al (2006) Electromagnetic forming tools and processing conditions: numerical simulation. Mater Manuf Processes 21(4):411–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cui XH, Mo JH, Li JJ et al (2014) Electromagnetic incremental forming (EMIF): a novel aluminum alloy sheet and tube forming technology. J Mater Process Technol 214(2):409–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cui XH, Mo JH, Li JJ et al (2017) Tube bulging process using multidirectional magnetic pressure. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90(5–8):2075–2082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Siddiqui MA, Correia JPM, Ahzi S et al (2009) Electromagnetic forming process: estimation of magnetic pressure in tube expansion and numerical simulation. Int J Mater Form 2(1):649–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Shanghai University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical Engineering and AutomationFuzhou UniversityFuzhouPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations