Influence of heat treatment on friction-welded joints made of high-carbon high-chromium tool steel/low-carbon steel for tooling applications

  • T. Packiaraj Rajendran
  • N. Rajesh Jesudoss HynesEmail author
  • Maria P. Nikolova
  • T. Christopher
  • Danail Nikolov
Technical Paper


In friction welding, a favourable combination of process parameters helps to form a strong joint. Metallurgical transformations take place depending on the material combination and process parameters. Mechanical testing and macroscopic and microscopic examinations help to characterize the joints. Friction-welded joint made of high-carbon high-chromium steel D3 and mild steel AISI 1010 is subjected to studies to establish a functionally graded tooling element. In order to enhance the quality of the joint, post-weld heat treatment has been attempted which gave the interesting results. The mechanical strength and microhardness of the joint were improved by 16% and 14%, respectively, after annealing compared to non-heat-treated specimens. The structure details and constituents of fusion line as well as heat-affected zones were studied by optical and scanning electron microscope, EDX and XRD analyses. Transformation of the deformed metastable phases (retain austenite and un-tempered martensite) into joint materials with refined structure and composition could be achieved near the fusion line by heat treatment. This is expected to enhance the service life of friction-welded components.


Friction welding Forging pressure Forging time Heat treatment D3 and AISI 1010 steel Microstructure Fusion line Heat-affected zone 



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Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversal College of Engineering and Technology, VallioorVallioorIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMepco Schlenk Engineering CollegeSivakasiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Material Science and TechnologyUniversity of Ruse “Angel Kanchev”RuseBulgaria
  4. 4.Government College of Engineering, TirunelveliTirunelveliIndia

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