Advertisement

The influence of volume variation in a homogeneous prechamber ignition system in combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions

  • 53 Accesses

Abstract

Research on prechamber ignition systems has become increasingly frequent as they promote significant reductions in engine-out emissions with low cost of implementation. In these systems, the combustion starts in an auxiliary chamber and flows through the interconnecting holes, in form of jets, to the main chamber, where it ignites the air–fuel mixture contained therein. Besides the air–fuel ratio, the geometry of the prechamber presents fundamental parameters that influence combustion characteristics and, consequently, the exhaust emissions. This paper aims to evaluate the effects of prechamber volume variation in combustion and emissions of a commercial engine equipped with a homogeneous charge prechamber ignition system. For this, three volumes were considered in stationary tests of a multi-cylinder engine operating under stoichiometric conditions in 1500 rpm and 3.3 bar of IMEP. The results indicated that the increase in volume within the limits considered present increase in the energy released and, hence, in the burning speed, reducing the combustion duration. Comparing to the baseline spark plug system, the prechamber with 3.8% of the main combustion chamber volume presented the best configuration among the evaluated volumes, with an increase in the evolution of pressure traces and reductions in around 13% in unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) engine-out emissions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Adapted from [18]

Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

Abbreviations

COVIMEP :

Coefficient of IMEP variation

V CC :

Main combustion chamber volume

V PC :

Prechamber volume

CO:

Carbon monoxide

CONV:

Conventional

COV:

Covariance

CO2 :

Carbon dioxide

ECU:

Electronic control unit

ES:

End of scale

ICE:

Internal combustion engine

IMEP:

Indicated mean effective pressure

HC:

Hydrocarbon

HR:

Heat release

MBF:

Mass fraction burned

MBT:

Maximum brake torque

MV:

Measured values

NDIR:

Non-dispersive infrared

NOx :

Nitrogen oxides

O2 :

Oxygen

PC:

Prechamber

Pc1:

Prechamber with volume of 0.88 cm3

Pc2:

Prechamber with volume of 1.52 cm3

Pc3:

Prechamber with volume of 1.82 cm3

PFI:

Port fuel injection

SI:

Spark ignition

THC:

Total de Hidrocarbonetos

References

  1. 1.

    Nitnaware PT, Suryawanshi JG (2016) Effects of equal spark timing on performance emission and combustion characteristics of SI engine using hydrogen and CNG blends. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 38(8):2245–2253

  2. 2.

    Jamrozik A, Tutak W, Kociszewski A, Sosnowski M (2013) Numerical simulation of two-stage combustion in SI engine with prechamber. Appl Math Model 37(5):2961–2982

  3. 3.

    Attard WP, Blaxill H, Anderson EK, Litke P (2012) Knock limit extension with a gasoline fueled pre-chamber jet igniter in a modern vehicle powertrain. SAE Int J Engines 5(3):1201–1215

  4. 4.

    Toulson E (2008) Applying alternative fuels in place of hydrogen to the jet ignition process. Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Melbourne

  5. 5.

    Roso VR, Santos NDSA, Alvarez CEC, Rodrigues Filho FA, Pujatti FJP, Valle RM (2019) Effects of mixture enleanment in combustion and emission parameters using a flex-fuel engine with ethanol and gasoline. Appl Therm Eng 153:463–472

  6. 6.

    Ricardo HR (1918) Internal-combustion engine. Google Patents

  7. 7.

    Feyz ME, Nalim MR, Khan MN, Tarraf A, Paik K-Y (2018) Three-dimensional simulation of turbulent hot-jet ignition for air-CH4-H2 deflagration in a confined volume. Flow Turbul Combust 101(1):123–137

  8. 8.

    Santos NDSA, Alvarez CEC, Roso VR, Baeta JGC, Valle RM (2019) Combustion analysis of a SI engine with stratified and homogeneous pre-chamber ignition system using ethanol and hydrogen. Appl Therm Eng 160:113985

  9. 9.

    Kettner M et al (2004) The BPI flame jet concept to improve the inflammation of lean burn mixtures in spark ignited engines. SAE technical paper, 0148-7191

  10. 10.

    Pera C, Knop V, Chevillard S, Reveillon J (2014) Effects of residual burnt gas heterogeneity on cyclic variability in lean-burn SI engines. Flow Turbul Combust 92(4):837–863

  11. 11.

    Hynes J (1986) Turbulence effects on combustion in spark ignition engines. University of Leeds, Leeds

  12. 12.

    Sidey JA, Mastorakos E (2018) Pre-chamber ignition mechanism: simulations of transient autoignition in a mixing layer between reactants and partially-burnt products. Flow Turbul Combust 101(4):1093–1102

  13. 13.

    Wimmer DB, Lee R (1973) An evaluation of the performance and emissions of a CFR engine equipped with a prechamber. SAE technical paper, 0148-7191

  14. 14.

    Moreira TAA, Baeta J, Rodrigues Filho F, Barros JM, Pujatti FJ, Malle R (2014) Characterization of a multi-cylinder torch ignition system operating with homogenous charge and lean mixture. SAE technical paper, 0148-7191

  15. 15.

    Adams T (1978) Theory and evaluation of auxiliary combustion (torch) chambers. SAE technical paper

  16. 16.

    Gussak L, Karpov V, Tikhonov YV (1979) The application of Lag-process in prechamber engines. SAE technical paper, 0148-7191

  17. 17.

    Newhall HK, Messiri IE (1970) A combustion chamber designed for minimum engine exhaust emissions. SAE Trans 79:1766–1780

  18. 18.

    Roso VR, Santos NDSA, Valle RM, Alvarez CEC, Monsalve-Serrano J, García A (2019) Evaluation of a stratified prechamber ignition concept for vehicular applications in real world and standardized driving cycles. Appl Energy 254:113691

  19. 19.

    Yamaguchi S, Ohiwa N, Hasegawa T (1985) Ignition and burning process in a divided chamber bomb. Combust Flame 59(2):177–187

  20. 20.

    Kawabata Y, Mori D (2004) Combustion diagnostics & improvement of a prechamber lean-burn natural gas engine. SAE Trans 113(3):660–672

  21. 21.

    Ryu H, Asanuma T (1985) Combustion analysis with gas temperature diagrams measured in a prechamber spark ignition engine. In: Symposium (international) on combustion, vol 20, no 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 195–200

  22. 22.

    Alvarez CEC, Couto GE, Roso VR, Thiriet AB, Valle RM (2017) A review of prechamber ignition systems as lean combustion technology for SI engines. Appl Therm Eng 128:107–120

  23. 23.

    Shah A, Tunestal P, Johansson B (2015) Effect of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on pre-chamber ignition in heavy duty natural gas engines. SAE technical paper, 0148-7191

  24. 24.

    Roethlisberger R, Favrat D (2003) Investigation of the prechamber geometrical configuration of a natural gas spark ignition engine for cogeneration: part II. Experimentation. Int J Therm Sci 42(3):239–253

  25. 25.

    Couto GE, Alvarez CEC, Thiriet AB, Lima VHC, Valle RM (2017) A review of prechamber ignition systems applied in SI engines. Acta Mech Mobilitatem 1(2):54–68

  26. 26.

    Sens M, Binder E (2019) Pre-chamber ignition as a key technology for future powertrain fleets. MTZ Worldwide 80(2):44–51

  27. 27.

    Zuo C, Zhao K (1998) A study on the combustion system of a spark ignition natural gas engine. SAE technical paper, 0148-7191

  28. 28.

    Gentz G et al (2015) A study of the influence of orifice diameter on a turbulent jet ignition system through combustion visualization and performance characterization in a rapid compression machine. Appl Therm Eng 81:399–411

  29. 29.

    Toulson E, Schock HJ, Attard WP (2010) A review of pre-chamber initiated jet ignition combustion systems. SAE technical paper, 0148-7191

  30. 30.

    Belincanta J, Alchorne J, Teixeira da Silva M (2016) The Brazilian experience with ethanol fuel: aspects of production, use, quality and distribution logistics. Braz J Chem Eng 33(4):1091–1102

  31. 31.

    Toulson E et al (2012) Visualization of propane and natural gas spark ignition and turbulent jet ignition combustion. SAE Int J Engines 5(4):1821–1835

  32. 32.

    ABNT and NBR ISO (1996) Veículos rodoviários–código de ensaio de motores–potência líquida efetiva. ed: Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

  33. 33.

    Validi A, Jaberi F (2018) Numerical study of turbulent jet ignition in a lean premixed configuration. Flow Turbul Combust 100(1):197–224

  34. 34.

    Roso VR, Alvarez CEC, Santos NDSA, Baeta JGC, Valle RM (2018) Combustion influence of a pre-chamber ignition system in a SI commercial engine. SAE technical paper, 0148-7191

  35. 35.

    Malé Q, Staffelbach G, Vermorel O, Misdariis A, Ravet F, Poinsot T (2019) Large eddy simulation of pre-chamber ignition in an internal combustion engine. Flow Turbul Combust 103:1–19

  36. 36.

    Akkerman V, Ivanov M, Bychkov V (2009) Turbulent flow produced by piston motion in a spark-ignition engine. Flow Turbul Combust 82(3):317–337

  37. 37.

    Cruz IWSL, Alvarez CEC, Teixeira AF, Valle RM (2016) Zero-dimensional mathematical model of the torch ignited engine. Appl Therm Eng 103:1237–1250

  38. 38.

    Nakazono T, Natsume Y (1994) Effect of dimensions of prechamber on lean burn gas engine. JSME Int J Ser B 37(4):951–956

  39. 39.

    Sakai Y, Kunii K, Tsutsumi S, Nakagawa Y (1974) Combustion characteristics of the torch ignited engine. SAE technical paper, 0148-7191

  40. 40.

    Kerimov NA, Mektiev RI (1978) Engines with stratified charge. SAE technical paper, 0148-7191

  41. 41.

    Alvarez CEC, Roso VR, Santos NDSA, Fernandes AT, Valle RM (2018) Combustion analysis in a SI engine with homogeneous and stratified pre-chamber system. SAE technical paper, 0148-7191

  42. 42.

    Heywood JB (1988) Internal combustion engine fundamentals. Mcgraw-Hill, New York

  43. 43.

    Moreira T (2014) Análise e caracterização de um sistema de ignição por lança chamas operando com carga homogênea. Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte

  44. 44.

    Alvarez CEC, Roso VR, Couto GE, Valle RM (2017) Combustion analysis of a current vehicular engine operating in lean air-fuel conditions. SAE technical paper, 0148-7191

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Post-Graduation Program in Mechanical Engineering at UFMG, the CTM – Centro de Tecnologia da Mobilidade at UFMG and research supporting agencies by CAPES and FAPEMIG for the support provided.

Author information

Correspondence to Vinícius Rückert Roso.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Technical Editor: Mário Eduardo Santos Martins.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sandoval, M.H.B., Alvarez, C.E.C., Roso, V.R. et al. The influence of volume variation in a homogeneous prechamber ignition system in combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions. J Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 42, 72 (2020) doi:10.1007/s40430-019-2156-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Prechamber ignition system
  • Volume variation
  • Engine-out emissions
  • Homogeneous charge