On the wake interference effects for flow around tandem bodies

  • 59 Accesses


The present study investigates the wake interference effects for flow around two tandem cylinders under the effect of gap spacing ranging from 0.5 to 10. The flow Reynolds number is fixed at 150, and lattice Boltzmann method is used as a numerical tool for this study. The results show that three different regimes exist depending on gap spacing and flow structure mechanism around cylinders: single cylinder body regime, reattachment regime and co-shedding regime. The results also show that in a particular regime multiple flow patterns may coexist and affect the behavior of fluid forces. This study reveals that there exists a critical value of spacing which alters the fluid flow characteristics abruptly. The drag coefficient of second cylinder is negative until critical spacing and becomes positive after that. It is found that when spacing crosses the critical value, both cylinders start shedding vortices and the drag coefficient oscillates. The wake interference effect is found to be dominant at small spacing values which weakens with increment in spacing between cylinders.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12


  1. 1.

    Price SJ, Sumner D, Smith JG, Leong K, Paidoussis MP (2002) Flow visualization around a circular cylinder near to a plane wall. J Fluids Struct 16(2):175–191

  2. 2.

    Zdravkovich MM (1985) Forces on a circular cylinder near a plane wall. Appl Ocean Res 7(4):197–201

  3. 3.

    Park J, Kwon K, Choi H (1998) Numerical solutions of flow past a circular cylinder at Reynolds numbers up to 160. KSME Int J 12(6):1200–1205

  4. 4.

    Davis RW, Moore EF (1982) A numerical study of vortex shedding from rectangles. J Fluid Mech 116:475–506

  5. 5.

    Islam SU, Abbasi WS, Rahman H (2014) Force statistics and wake structure mechanism of flow around a square cylinder at low Reynolds numbers. Int J Mech Mechatron Eng 8(8):1375–1381

  6. 6.

    Islam SU, Rahman H, Abbasi WS (2014) Grid independence study of flow past a square cylinder using the multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method. Int J Math Comput Sci 8(7):1046–1056

  7. 7.

    Anirudh K, Dhinakaran S (2018) On the onset of vortex shedding past a two-dimensional porous square cylinder. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 179(2018):200–214

  8. 8.

    Rehman KU, Malik MY, Mahmood R, Kousar N, Zehra I (2019) A potential alternative CFD simulation for steady Carreau-Bird law-based shear thickening model: part-I. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 41:176

  9. 9.

    Chamoli S, Tang T, Yu P, Lu R (2019) Effect of shape modification on heat transfer and drag for fluid flow past a cam-shaped cylinder. Int J Heat Mass Transf 131(2019):1147–1163

  10. 10.

    Yuan MY, Mohebbi R, Rashidi MM, Yang Z (2018) Numerical simulation of flow over a square cylinder with upstream and downstream circular bar using lattice Boltzmann method. Int J Mod Phys C 29(4):1850030

  11. 11.

    Williamson CHK (1996) Vortex dynamics in the cylinder wake. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 28:477–539

  12. 12.

    Niemann HJ, Holscher N (1990) A review of recent experiments on the flow past circular cylinders. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 33:197–209

  13. 13.

    Robichaux J, Balachandar S, Vanka SP (1999) Three-dimensional Floquet instability of the wake of square cylinder. Phys Fluids 11(3):560–578

  14. 14.

    Sohankar A, Davidson L, Norberg C (1995) Numerical simulation of unsteady flow around a square two-dimensional cylinder. In: Twelfth Australasian fluid mechanics conference. The University of Sydney, Australia, pp 517–520

  15. 15.

    Norberg C (1993) Flow around rectangular cylinders: pressure forces and wake frequencies. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 49:187–196

  16. 16.

    Wang SY, Tian FB, Jia LB, Lu XY, Yin XZ (2010) Secondary vortex street in the wake of two tandem circular cylinders at low Reynolds number. Phys Rev E 81(3):036305

  17. 17.

    Inoue O, Mori M, Hatakeyama N (2006) Aeolian tones radiated from flow past two square cylinders in tandem. Phys Fluids 18(4):046101

  18. 18.

    Sakamoto H, Haniu H, Obata Y (1987) Fluctuating forces acting on two square prisms in a tandem arrangement. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 26:85–103

  19. 19.

    Liu CH, Chen JM (2002) Observations of hysteresis in flow around two square cylinders in a tandem arrangement. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 90(9):1019–1050

  20. 20.

    Abbasi WS, Islam SU (2018) Transition from steady to unsteady state flow around two inline cylinders under the effect of Reynolds numbers. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 40:168

  21. 21.

    Sohankar A (2011) A numerical investigation of the flow over a pair of identical square cylinders in a tandem arrangement. Int J Numer Meth Fluids 70:1244–1257

  22. 22.

    Islam SU, Abbasi WS, Ying ZC (2016) Transitions in the unsteady wakes and aerodynamic characteristics of the flow past three square cylinders aligned inline. Aerosp Sci Technol 50:96–111

  23. 23.

    Kim MK, Kim DK, Yoon SH, Lee DH (2008) Measurements of the flow fields around two square cylinders in a tandem arrangement. J Mech Sci Technol 22:397–407

  24. 24.

    Etminan A (2013) Flow and heat transfer over two bluff bodies from very low to high Reynolds numbers in the laminar and turbulent flow regimes. Int J Adv Design Manufact Tech 6(2):61–72

  25. 25.

    Lankadasu A, Vengadesan S (2008) Interference effect of two equal sized square cylinders in tandem arrangement: with planar shear flow. Int J Numer Meth Fluids 57(8):1005–1021

  26. 26.

    Bao Y, Wu Q, Zhou D (2012) Numerical investigation of flow around an inline square cylinder array with different spacing ratios. Comput Fluids 55:118–131

  27. 27.

    Igarashi T, Suzuki K (1984) Characteristics of the flow around three circular cylinders arranged in line. Bulliten JSME 27(233):2397–2404

  28. 28.

    Zdravkovich MM (1987) The effects of interference between circular cylinders in cross flow. J Fluids Struct 1(2):239–261

  29. 29.

    Benzi R, Succi S, Vergassola M (1992) The lattice Boltzmann equation: theory and applications. Phys Rep 222(3):145–197

  30. 30.

    Chen S, Doolen GD (1998) Lattice Boltzmann method for fluid flows. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 30:329–364

  31. 31.

    Ilio GD, Chiappini D, Ubertini S, Bella G, Succi S (2017) Hybrid lattice Boltzmann method on overlapping grids. Phys Rev E 95:013309

  32. 32.

    Ilio GD, Dorschner B, Bella G, Succi S, Karlin IV (2018) Simulation of turbulent flows with the entropic multirelaxation time lattice Boltzmann method on body-fitted meshes. J Fluid Mech 849:35–56

  33. 33.

    Bhatnagar P, Gross EP, Krook MK (1954) A model for collision processes in gases. I. Small amplitude processes in charged and neutral one-component systems. Phys Rev 94(3):511–525

Download references


This work was supported by the grant provided by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan under the SRGP-program (Project#2134). The authors are thankful to Higher education commission for support.

Author information

Correspondence to Waqas Sarwar Abbasi.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Technical Editor: Daniel Onofre de Almeida Cruz, D.Sc.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Abbasi, W.S., Mahmood, R. & Naheed, A. On the wake interference effects for flow around tandem bodies. J Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 42, 53 (2020) doi:10.1007/s40430-019-2137-5

Download citation


  • Cylinder
  • Drag
  • Fluid
  • Lift
  • Strouhal number