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Reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) with double direct injection of diesel and hydrous ethanol

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Oil is still a relevant component in the global energy matrix. However, price fluctuations, irregular production and possible shortage of oil are factors that negatively affect the world economy. Moreover, it is universal unanimity that the exploitation of oil and its derivatives causes setbacks to the environment and diminishes the population life quality. Therefore, there are studies to find natural energy sources to replace petroleum products to reduce the harmful effects caused by fossil fuels. In this work, sugarcane ethanol, widely used to supply passenger cars in Brazil, was the fuel chosen as a possible candidate for diesel replacement, even partially. To conduct the study, a reactive charge compression ignition engine fueled with diesel and ethanol was used to compare two directed injection modes: ethanol and diesel (ED) strategy (ethanol and diesel injected before top dead center (TDC)) and diesel and ethanol (DE) strategy (diesel injected before TDC and ethanol injected after TDC). In all tests in which ethanol was injected, increased ignition delay was observed. The highest efficiency was achieved using the ED injection strategy, but detonations and pressure peaks appeared. Test results also show that, using DE injection strategy, it was possible to increase the amount of ethanol injected, since no pressure peaks nor detonations appeared; however, it presented lower efficiency compared to the ED injection strategy.

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Rio de Janeiro War Armory


Higher education personnel improvement coordination


Diesel-specific consumption


Compression ignition




Cetane number


Compressed natural gas


Carbon monoxide


Compression ratio


Army Technology Center




Mechanical Engineering Department


Manufacturing directorate


Directly injected


Diesel injection system




Brazilian Army




Exhaust gas recirculation


Ethanol injection system


Ethanol additive




Homogeneous charge compression ignition


Ignition delay


Military Engineering Institute


PUC-RJ Institute of Technology


Vehicle Engineering Laboratory


Low-temperature combustion


Rapid compression machine


Nitrogen dioxide


Generically represents nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), products of the combustion process


Premixed charge compression ignition


Port fuel injection


Particulate material


Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro


Reactivity-controlled compression ignition


Top dead center


Ultra-low-sulfur diesel


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We would like to thank the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-RJ), engineer team of Vehicular Engineering Laboratory (LEV—PUC-Rio), Department of Mechanical Engineering of PUC-RJ (DEM), Institute of Technology of PUC-RJ (ITUC), Brazilian Army, Military Institute of Engineering (IME), Army Technology Center (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro War Armory (AGR), the Manufacturing Directorate (DF) and Personnel Improvement Coordination Higher Education (CAPES). The authors certify that they have NO affiliation with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria, educational grants, participation in speakers’ bureaus, membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest, and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements) or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Claudio Vidal Teixeira.

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Teixeira, C.V., Braga, C.V.M., Sánchez, F.Z. et al. Reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) with double direct injection of diesel and hydrous ethanol. J Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 42, 64 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40430-019-2101-4

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  • Hydrous ethanol
  • Diesel oil
  • Compression ignition
  • RCCI