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Reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) with double direct injection of diesel and hydrous ethanol

  • 30 Accesses

Abstract

Oil is still a relevant component in the global energy matrix. However, price fluctuations, irregular production and possible shortage of oil are factors that negatively affect the world economy. Moreover, it is universal unanimity that the exploitation of oil and its derivatives causes setbacks to the environment and diminishes the population life quality. Therefore, there are studies to find natural energy sources to replace petroleum products to reduce the harmful effects caused by fossil fuels. In this work, sugarcane ethanol, widely used to supply passenger cars in Brazil, was the fuel chosen as a possible candidate for diesel replacement, even partially. To conduct the study, a reactive charge compression ignition engine fueled with diesel and ethanol was used to compare two directed injection modes: ethanol and diesel (ED) strategy (ethanol and diesel injected before top dead center (TDC)) and diesel and ethanol (DE) strategy (diesel injected before TDC and ethanol injected after TDC). In all tests in which ethanol was injected, increased ignition delay was observed. The highest efficiency was achieved using the ED injection strategy, but detonations and pressure peaks appeared. Test results also show that, using DE injection strategy, it was possible to increase the amount of ethanol injected, since no pressure peaks nor detonations appeared; however, it presented lower efficiency compared to the ED injection strategy.

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Abbreviations

AGR:

Rio de Janeiro War Armory

CAPES:

Higher education personnel improvement coordination

CECD :

Diesel-specific consumption

CI:

Compression ignition

CH4:

Methane

CN:

Cetane number

CNG:

Compressed natural gas

CO:

Carbon monoxide

CR:

Compression ratio

CTEx:

Army Technology Center

DE:

Diesel/ethanol

DEM:

Mechanical Engineering Department

DF:

Manufacturing directorate

DI:

Directly injected

DIS:

Diesel injection system

DMF:

2,5-Dimethylfuran

EB:

Brazilian Army

ED:

Ethanol/diesel

EGR:

Exhaust gas recirculation

EIS:

Ethanol injection system

ED95:

Ethanol additive

HC:

Hydrocarbon

HCCI:

Homogeneous charge compression ignition

ID:

Ignition delay

IME:

Military Engineering Institute

ITUC:

PUC-RJ Institute of Technology

LEV:

Vehicle Engineering Laboratory

LTC:

Low-temperature combustion

MCR:

Rapid compression machine

NO2:

Nitrogen dioxide

NOx:

Generically represents nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), products of the combustion process

PCCI:

Premixed charge compression ignition

PFI:

Port fuel injection

PM:

Particulate material

PUC-RJ:

Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro

RCCI:

Reactivity-controlled compression ignition

TDC:

Top dead center

ULSD:

Ultra-low-sulfur diesel

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-RJ), engineer team of Vehicular Engineering Laboratory (LEV—PUC-Rio), Department of Mechanical Engineering of PUC-RJ (DEM), Institute of Technology of PUC-RJ (ITUC), Brazilian Army, Military Institute of Engineering (IME), Army Technology Center (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro War Armory (AGR), the Manufacturing Directorate (DF) and Personnel Improvement Coordination Higher Education (CAPES). The authors certify that they have NO affiliation with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria, educational grants, participation in speakers’ bureaus, membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest, and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements) or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Claudio Vidal Teixeira.

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Teixeira, C.V., Braga, C.V.M., Sánchez, F.Z. et al. Reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) with double direct injection of diesel and hydrous ethanol. J Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 42, 64 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40430-019-2101-4

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Keywords

  • Hydrous ethanol
  • Diesel oil
  • Compression ignition
  • RCCI