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Methodology for the validation of fuel consumption in diesel engines installed on board military ships, using diesel oil and biodiesel blends

  • S. F. Clume
  • C. R. P. Belchior
  • R. H. R. GutiérrezEmail author
  • U. A. Monteiro
  • L. A. Vaz
Technical Paper
  • 47 Downloads

Abstract

Maritime transport accounts for 90% of global trade, and therefore, the levels of air pollution from ships are high. In this respect, MARPOL 73/78 suggests the use of biodiesel in diesel engines installed on board ships as an alternative in order to reduce emission levels, while still ensuring torque and power supply, for which they were designed. In this regard, the contribution of this work is to present a methodology for the prediction of biodiesel blend consumption in engines installed on board military ships. For this purpose, a one-dimensional, quasi-steady thermodynamic model was developed, comprising a diesel engine operation cycle. Since biodiesel has lower heating value than diesel oil, fuel consumption increases, so the nonlinear Levenberg–Marquardt optimization technique was used to evaluate the injection duration. The method implemented was validated using statistical tools, with experimental data obtained in a direct injection single-cylinder diesel engine, installed on test bench, using several soybean biodiesel blends, and the results showed good accuracy related to performance parameters. Finally, a direct injection diesel engine with common rail installed in a military ship was chosen as case study, and the results demonstrated that in order to maintain engine performance, fuel consumption increases as the biodiesel content increases in the blend.

Keywords

Biodiesel Thermodynamic modeling Fuel consumption Levenberg–Marquardt method 

List of symbols

A

Cylinder wall area (m2)

C

Coefficient

c

Specific heat capacity (J/(kg K))

\( \bar{c} \)

Molar specific heat capacity (J/mol K)

D

Cylinder diameter (m)

d

Derivative, valve diameter

e

Element sum of the squares of minimization vector

H

Vector of the estimated performance parameters

h

Heat transfer coefficient (J/(m2 K))

J

Jacobian matrix

L

Connecting rod length (m)

l

Valve displacement

m

Mass (kg)

N

Engine speed (rpm)

P

Pressure (Pa, bar)

Q

Heat transfer (J)

R

Universal gas constant (J/(kg K))

\( \bar{R} \)

Universal gas constant (J/(mol K))

Rcrank

Crankshaft radius

r

Connecting rod/crank ratio

S

Objective function to be minimized

s

Piston stroke (m)

T

Temperature (K)

U

Internal energy (J)

V

Volume (m3)

W

Work (J)

x

Fraction of fuel burned in combustion

Z

Vector of the measured performance parameters

Subscripts

comb

Combustion

D

Discharge

down

Downstream

ex

Exhaustion

f

Fuel

ig

Ignition

inj

Injection

m

Misture of air and fuel

max

Maximum

p

Pressure

t

Total amount, open injector period (°)

up

Upstream

v

Volume, valve

w

Wall

Superscript

a, m

Shape factors of Wiebe function

k

Computational iteration

T

Transposed matrix

Greek symbols

α

Significance level of the hypothesis test

β

Emissivity

Period

δ

Partial derivative

η

Efficiency coefficient

γ

Ratio between specific heats

µ

Sample mean, damping parameter

Ω

Diagonal matrix

ω

Angular velocity (rad/s)

ρ

Fuel density (kg/m3)

σ

Boltzmann constant

τ

Ignition delay (°)

θ

Crankshaft angle (°)

Abbreviations

LHV

Lower fuel heating value

BN

Brazilian navy

IME

Indicated mean pressure

SFC

Specific fuel consumption

SOI

Start of injection fuel crank angle

EOI

End of injection fuel crank angle

TDC

Top dead center

BDC

Bottom dead center

BTDC

Before top dead center

ABDC

After bottom dead center

IVO

Inlet valve opening

EVO

Exhaust valve opening

EVC

Exhaust valve closure

OVA

Opening valve angle

AF

Air/fuel

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was possible due to the Brazilian Navy financing, in a technical partnership with the Laboratory of Dynamic Tests and Vibration Analysis (LEDAV) of COPPE/UFRJ. The experimental data were provided by the engineers Alexandre Schalch Mendes, Ph.D. and Gelson Carneiro de Souza Junior, M.Sc.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have not conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Directorate of Naval Engineering, Brazilian NavyRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Ocean Engineering ProgramFederal University of Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

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