Instrumentation influence: a study about the intrusiveness level caused by a single PVDF in a flexible dynamic system

  • É. L. OliveiraEmail author
  • N. M. M. Maia
  • A. G. Marto
  • R. G. A. da Silva
  • F. J. Afonso
  • A. Suleman
Technical Paper


The interest in applying piezoelectric materials for modal analysis has been growing in the past few decades. In piezoelectric materials, both electrical and mechanical domains are coupled, i.e., these materials are able to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy and vice versa. Due to this key characteristic, they can be used in several applications as actuators or sensors. Furthermore, some piezoelectric materials exhibit a predominant coupling, which makes them more efficient when used for specific purposes/applications. This is the case of the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) which is widely used as a sensor. An advantage associated with the PVDF is its small influence on the results, due to the low thickness and high flexibility; sometimes, its influence is completely neglected. The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of a single PVDF film on a flexible beam model. For this purpose, an efficient methodology to verify and identify the intrusiveness level of the instrumentation is proposed, which consists in changing the sensor position (PVDF) and simultaneously acquiring the data by using a non-intrusive technique (laser vibrometer). The modal parameters (natural frequencies and damping factors) obtained by PVDF and laser vibrometer responses should be very close for each PVDF position. If this condition is satisfied, the variation of the modal parameters due to PVDF position will show the intrusiveness level imposed by the PVDF instrumentation. This research emphasizes the importance of verifying the influence of the instrumentation, even if it seems to cause merely a small intrusiveness on the dynamic system.


Instrumentation influence Experimental modal analysis Piezoelectric materials PZT PVDF 



The authors acknowledge the support received from the Brazilian Research Agency CNPq through the INCT-EIE (Proj. 400211/ 2012-2, Proc. 229039/2013-8), the support provided by Fundação Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, CAPES (PROEX 10.88.689), as well as the support received from Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, ITA. The authors also acknowledge the Portuguese Science Foundation FCT, through IDMEC, under LAETA, project UID/EMS/50022/2019.


  1. 1.
    Fan B, Zhou M, Zhang C, He D, Bai J (2019) Polymer-based materials for achieving high energy density film capacitors. Prog Polym Sci 97:101143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hu D, Yao M, Fan Y, Ma C, Fan M, Liu M (2019) Strategies to achieve high performance piezoelectric nanogenerators. Nano Energy 55:288–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yan J, Liu M, Jeong YG, Kang W, Li L, Zhao Y, Deng N, Cheng B, Yang G (2019) Performance enhancements in poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based piezoelectric nanogenerators for efficient energy harvesting. Nano Energy 56:662–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhu M, Wu J, Wang Y, Song M, Long L, Siyal SH, Yang X, Sui G (2019) Recent advances in gel polymer electrolyte for high-performance lithium batteries. J Energy Chem 37:126–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Costa CM, Lee Y-H, Kim J-H, Lee S-Y, Lanceros-Mndez S (2019) Recent advances on separator membranes for lithium-ion battery applications: from porous membranes to solid electrolytes. Energy Storage Mater 22:346–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Judez X, Martinez-Ibaez M, Santiago A, Armand M, Zhang H, Li C (2019) Quasi-solid-state electrolytes for lithium sulfur batteries: advances and perspectives. J Power Sources 438:226985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ejeian F, Azadi S, Razmjou A, Orooji Y, Kottapalli A, Warkiani ME, Asadnia M (2019) Design and applications of MEMS flow sensors: a review. Sens Actuators A 295:483–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zang H, Zhang X, Zhu B, Fatikow S (2019) Recent advances in non-contact force sensors used for micro/nano manipulation. Sens Actuators A 296:155–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zolfagharian A, Kouzani AZ, Khoo SY, Moghadam AAA, Gibson I, Kaynak A (2016) Evolution of 3D printed soft actuators. Sens Actuators A 250:258–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lu KJ, Chen Y, Chung T-S (2019) Design of omniphobic interfaces for membrane distillation–a review. Water Res 162:64–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shi Y, Huang J, Zeng G, Cheng W, Hu J (2019) Photocatalytic membrane in water purification: is it stepping closer to be driven by visible light? J Membr Sci 584:364–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Laroche G, Marois Y, Guidoin R, King MW, Martin L, How T, Douville Y (1995) Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a biomaterial: From polymeric raw material to monofilament vascular suture. J Biomed Mater Res 29(12):1525–1536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Proto A, Vlach K, Conforto S, Kasik V, Daniele Bibbo DV, Bernabucci I, Penhaker M, Schmid M (2017) Using PVDF films as flexible piezoelectric generators for biomechanical energy harvesting. Lekar Techn Clin Technol 47(1):5–10Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cardoso VF, Rocha JG, Soares OF, Minas G, Lanceros-Mendez S (2008) Lab-on-a-chip with fluid acoustic microagitation—piezoelectric Polymer \(\beta\)-PVDF used as ultrassonic transducer. In: Proceedings of the first international conference on biomedical electronics and devices—volume 2: Biodevices, (BIOSTEC 2008), INSTICC. SciTePress, pp 262–267Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Xin Y, Sun H, Tian H, Guo C, Li X, Wang S, Wang C (2016) The use of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films as sensors for vibration measurement: a brief review. Ferroelectrics 502(1):28–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kang dong G (2014) Application and modification of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes: a review. J Membr Sci 463:145–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lang S, Muensit S (2006) Review of some lesser-known applications of piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymers. Appl Phys A 85(2):125–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jia Y, Chen X, Ni Q, Li L, Ju C (2013) Dependence of the impact response of polyvinylidene fluoride sensors on their supporting materials’ elasticity. Sensors (Basel) 13:8669–8678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bera B, Sarkar MD (2017) Piezoelectricity in PVDF and PVDF based piezoelectric nanogenerator: a concept. IOSR J Appl Phys (IOSR-JAP) 9:95–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Abdullah KA, Batal MA, Hamdan R, Khalil T, Zaraket J, Aillerie M, Salame C (2017) The enhancement of PVDF pyroelectricity (pyroelectric coefficient and dipole moment) by inclusions. Energy Procedia, vol 119, pp 545–555. In: International conference on technologies and materials for renewable energy, environment and sustainability (TMREES17) 21–24 April 2017, Beirut LebanonGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moheimani SOR, Fleming AJ (2006) Piezoelectric transducers for vibration control and damping. Springer, BerlinzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yang L-J, Hsu C-K, Ho J-Y, Feng C-K (2007) Flapping wings with PVDF sensors to modify the aerodynamic forces of a micro aerial vehicle. Sens Actuators A Phys 139:95–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hong Y, Sui L, Zhang M, Shi G (2018) Theoretical analysis and experimental study of the effect of the neutral plane of a composite piezoelectric cantilever. Energy Convers Manag 171:1020–1029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Huang H-H, Chen K-S (2016) Design, analysis, and experimental studies of a novel PVDF-based piezoelectric energy harvester with beating mechanisms. Sens Actuators A 238:317–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang DH, Huang SL (2000) Health monitoring and diagnosis for flexible structures with PVDF piezoelectric film sensor array. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 11(6):482–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hurlebaus S, Stbener U, Gaul L (2008) Vibration reduction of curved panels by active modal control. Comput Struct 86(3):251–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Toda M, Thompson ML (2006) Contact-type vibration sensors using curved clamped PVDF film. IEEE Sens J 6(5):1170–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Maia S, He L, Lin S, To U (1997) Theoretical and experimental modal analysis. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chuang K-C, Ma C-C, Liou H-C (2012) Experimental investigation of the cross-sensitivity and size effects of polyvinylidene fluoride film sensors on modal testing. Sensors 12(12):16641–16659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Measurement Specialties, Incorporated, Sensor Products Division: Piezo film sensors: technical manual (1999)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    SDT shielded piezo sensors, technical data, December (2009)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    3M Scotch-Weld Epoxy Adhesives DP460 Off-White: technical data, Mach (2004)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bilgen O, Wang Y, Inman DJ (2012) Electromechanical comparison of cantilevered beams with multifunctional piezoceramic devices. Mech Syst Signal Process 27:763–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grosel J, Sawicki W, Pakos W (2014) Application of classical and operational modal analysis for examination of engineering structures. Proc Eng 91:136–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Polytec Inc.: CLV - 2534-2 compact laser vibrometer, user’s manualGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    LMS International (2000) The LMS theory and background bookGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Avitabile P (2002) Modal space in our little world, modal analysis and controls laboratory. Lowelll, Massachusetts USAGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brandt A (2011) Noise and vibration analysis: signal analysis and experimental procedures. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Peeters B, Vanhollebeke F, der Auweraer HV (2007) Operational PolyMAX for estimating the dynamic properties of a stadium structure during a football game. Shock Vib 14(4):283–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    LMS: The LMS Test.Lab modal analysis manual, LMS Test.Lab, Rev 11AGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Oliveira É, Maia N, Marto A, da Silva R, Afonso F, Suleman A (2016) Modal characterization of composite flat plate models using piezoelectric transducers. Mech Syst Signal Process 79:16–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LAETA, IDMEC, Instituto Superior TécnicoUniversidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Divisão de AerodinâmicaInstituto de Aeronáutica e EspaçoSão José dos CamposBrazil
  3. 3.Divisão de Engenharia AeronáuticaInstituto Tecnológico de AeronáuticaSão José dos CamposBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of VictoriaVictoriaCanada

Personalised recommendations