Hydrodynamics analysis of stepped planing hull under different physical and geometrical conditions

  • Hamid Kazemi
  • Mahmoud Salari
  • Hashem NowruziEmail author
  • Amin Najafi
Technical Paper


Stepped planing hulls are improved high-speed crafts with the main characteristics of low drag to lift ratio. In the current paper, we numerically investigated the hydrodynamic performance of stepped planing hull via 3D CFD analysis. To this accomplishment, without step and stepped planing hulls with one transverse step are simulated with free heave and pitch motions under different weight loadings, trim angles, Froude numbers and distances of LCG from aft body. Resistance to weight ratio, pressure distribution, and centerline and 0.25 line wake profiles are computed. CFD results are appropriately validated compared to our conducted experimental laboratory tests. Developed formulation to predict wake profile is also suggested.


CFD Stepped hull Wake profile Resistance to weight ratio 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.


  1. 1.
    Doctors LJ (1985) Hydrodynamics of high-speed small craft. Technical Report, University of Michigan, USAGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Savitsky D, Morabito M (2010) Surface wave contours associated with the fore body wake of stepped planing hulls. Mar Technol 47:1–16Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yousefi R, Shafaghat R, Shakeri M (2013) Hydrodynamic analysis techniques for high-speed planing hulls. Appl Ocean Res 42:105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nowruzi H, Ghassemi H (2016) Using artificial neural network to predict velocity of sound in liquid water as a function of ambient temperature, electrical and magnetic fields. J Ocean Eng Sci 1:203–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nowruzi H, Ghassemi H, Ghiasi M (2017) Performance predicting of 2D and 3D submerged hydrofoils using CFD and ANNs. J Mar Sci Technol 22:710–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shora MM, Ghassemi H, Nowruzi H (2018) Using computational fluid dynamic and artificial neural networks to predict the performance and cavitation volume of a propeller under different geometrical and physical characteristics. J Mar Eng Technol 17:59–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Najafi A, Nowruzi H, Ghassemi H (2018) Performance prediction of hydrofoil-supported catamarans using experiment and ANNs. Appl Ocean Res 75:66–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brizzolara S, Serra F (2007) Accuracy of CFD codes in the prediction of planing surfaces hydrodynamic characteristics. In: Second international conference on marine research and transportation, Naples, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Savitsky D (1964) Hydrodynamic design of planing hulls. Mar Technol 1:71–95Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shuford CL (1958) A theoretical and experimental study of planing surfaces including effects of cross section and plan form. NACA Report 1355Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Makasyeyev MV (2009) Numerical modeling of cavity flow on bottom of a stepped planing hull. In: Proceedings of the seventh international symposium cavitation, Michigan, USAGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Garland WR, Maki KJ (2012) A numerical study of a two-dimensional stepped planing surface. J Ship Prod Des 28:60–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    De Marco A, Mancini S, Miranda S, Scognamiglio R, Vitiello L (2017) Experimental and numerical hydrodynamic analysis of a stepped planing hull. Appl Ocean Res 64:135–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cucinotta F, Guglielmino E, Sfravara F (2017) An experimental comparison between different artificial air cavity designs for a planing hull. Ocean Eng 140:233–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dashtimanesh A, Esfandiari A, Mancini S (2018) Performance prediction of two-stepped planing hulls using morphing mesh approach. J Ship Prod Des 34:236–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dicaterino F, Niazmand Bilandi R, Mancini S, Dashtimanesh A, De Carlini M (2018) A numerical way for a stepped planing hull design and optimization. In: Technology and science for the ships of the future: proceedings of NAV 2018: 19th international conference on ship and maritime research. IOS Press, pp 220–229Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Najafi A, Nowruzi H, Hashemi SA (2018) The effects of pre-swirl ducts on the propulsion performance of conventional ship: an experimental study. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 40:552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Propulsion Committee (2002) Final report and recommendations to the 23rd ITTC. In: Proceeding of 23rd ITTCGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nowruzi H, Najafi A (2019) An experimental and CFD study on the effects of different pre-swirl ducts on propulsion performance of series 60 ship. Ocean Eng 173:491–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Menter FR (1997) Eddy viscosity transport equations and their relation to the k-ε model. J Fluids Eng 119(4):876–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    CD-Adapco (2014) User guide STAR-CCM + Version 9.04, 2014Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    ITTC (2014) Recommended procedures and guidelines—practical guidelines for ship CFD applications, section 7.5-03-02-03. In: International Towing Tank ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jiang Y, Sun H, Zou J, Hu A, Yang J (2016) Analysis of tunnel hydrodynamic characteristics for planing trimaran by model tests and numerical simulations. Ocean Eng 113:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Celik IB, Ghia U, Roache PJ, Freitas CJ, Coleman H, Raad PE (2008) Procedure for estimation and reporting of uncertainty due to discretization in CFD applications. J Fluids Eng Trans ASME 130:078001–078004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Doustdar MM, Kazemi H (2019) Effects of fixed and dynamic mesh methods on simulation of stepped planing craft. J Ocean Eng Sci 4(1):33–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamid Kazemi
    • 1
  • Mahmoud Salari
    • 1
  • Hashem Nowruzi
    • 3
    Email author
  • Amin Najafi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentImam Hossein UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.National Iranian Marine Laboratory (NIMALA)TehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Maritime EngineeringAmirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic)TehranIran

Personalised recommendations