Effect of surface temperature on the impaction and deposition of micron-sized engine oil particles on a heated flat plate

  • Vahid Mousapour KhaneshanEmail author
  • Mohammad Hassan Shojaeefard
Technical Paper


In this paper, the impaction and deposition of fine engine oil particles on heated surface are investigated experimentally and mathematically. The solidification tendency of fine engine oil particles and engine oil film on a heated flat plate is compared. Different engine oils were used to assess the effect of base oil type on deposition tendency. Results show that there are major differences between the deposition of fine oil particles on the hot plate and an oil film heated on the plate. In addition, results indicated that mineral-based oils tend to form a higher amount of deposits than semi-synthetic-based oil. The solidification efficiency of different engine oils maximizes at surface temperatures of approximately 200–250 °C. Furthermore, using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray, the characteristics of deposits were studied.


Engine oil Micron particle Impaction Deposition SEM 



The authors wish to thank IRANKHODRO POWERTRAIN CO. (IPCO) for its financial support to build the experimental setup and its measurement equipment.


  1. 1.
    Shojaeefard MH, Mousapour Khaneshan V, Yosri MR, Ehteram MA, Allymehr E (2016) Investigation of engine oil micro-droplets deposition using a round impinging jet. J Braz Soc Mech Sci 38(3):721–734. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ye Z, Meng Q, Mohamadian HP, Wang JT, Chen L, Zhu L (2007) Investigation of deposit formation mechanisms for engine in-cylinder combustion and exhaust systems using quantitative analysis and sustainability study. Int J Thermophys 28(3):1056–1066. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mackney DW, Calder RM, Macduff MGJ, Martin W, Walter D, Katers D, Vietzen R (2002) Reducing deposits in a DISI engine. SAE J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Noma K, Noda T, Isomura H, Ashida T, Kamioka R, Isoda T, Nishida T, Goto H, Kameoka A, Koseki K, Watanabe M, Seo M, Koide S, Tanaka E, Fukui H, Yamazaki Y, Ohta S, Notsuki Y, Tsuboi K (2003) A study of injector deposits, combustion chamber deposits (CCD) and intake valve deposits (IVD) in direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines II. SAE J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Parsinejad F, Biggs W (2011) Direct injection spark ignition engine deposit analysis: combustion chamber and intake valve deposits. SAE J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim H, Jung H, Kim S, Kim H, Whang T (1999) A study on the development of an intake valve deposit test method. SAE J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Belincanta J, Mello E, Sá R (2010) Evaluating the induction system deposit tendencies: Bench technique. SAE Int J Fuels Lubr 3(2):60–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ramadhas A, Singh V, Subramanian M, Acharya G, Basu B, Malhotra RK (2011) Impact of fuel additives on intake valve deposits, combustion chamber deposits and emissions. SAE J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chapman E, Cummings J, Conran D (2013) Effects of gasoline and ethanol fuel corrosion inhibitors on powertrain intake valve deposits. SAE Int J Fuels Lubr 6(1):63–79. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ghielmetti C (2001) Experimental analysis of a spray impinging on a conical surface. Int J Therm Sci 40(3):249–254. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen R-H, Chiu S-L, Lin T-H (2007) On the collision behaviors of a diesel drop impinging on a hot surface. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 32(2):587–595. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ge Y, Fan L-S (2005) Three dimensional simulation of impingement of a liquid droplet on a flat surface in the Leidenfrost regime. Phys Fluids 17(027104):1–20. CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wachters LH, Bonne JH, Van Nouhuis HJ (1966) The heat transfer from a horizontal plate to sessile water drops in the spheroidal state. Chem Eng Sci 21(10):923–936. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pedersen CO (1970) An experimental study of the dynamic behaviour and heat transfer characteristics of water droplets impinging upon a heated surface. Int J Heat Mass Transf 13(2):369–381. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ehteram MA, Basirat Tabrizi H, Ahmadi G, Safari M, Agha Mirsalim M (2013) Investigation of fine droplet generation from hot engine oil by impinging gas jets onto liquid surface. J Aerosol Sci 65:49–57. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Menter FR (1994) Two-equation eddy-viscosity turbulence models for engineering applications. AIAA J 32(8):1598–1605. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hutchinson P, Hewitt GF, Dukler AE (1971) Deposition of liquid or solid dispersions from turbulent gas streams: a stochastic model. Chem Eng Sci 26(3):419–439. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kallio GA, Reeks MW (1989) A numerical simulation of particle deposition in turbulent boundary layers. Int J Multiph Flow 15(3):433–446. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Saffman PG (1965) The lift on a small sphere in a slow shear flow. J Fluid Mech 22(2):385–400. CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Talbot L (1980) Thermophoresis of particles in a heated boundary layer. J Fluid Mech 101(4):737–758. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Petkov JT, Denkov ND, Danov KD, Velev OD, Aust R, Durst F (1995) Measurement of the drag coefficient of spherical particles attached to fluid interfaces. J Colloid Interface Sci 172(1):147–154. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Harvie DJE, Fletcher DF (2001) A hydrodynamic and thermodynamic simulation of droplet impacts on hot surface, part I, theoretical model. Int J Heat Mass Transf 44(14):2633–2642. CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Diaby M, Sablier M, Le Negrate A, El Fassi M, Bocquet J (2009) Understanding carbonaceous deposit formation resulting from engine oil degradation. Carbon 47(2):355–366. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Prasad R, Ryan H, Dell S, Pheneger D, Sheets R (2008) Formation of deposits from lubricants in high temperature applications. SAE J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vahid Mousapour Khaneshan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohammad Hassan Shojaeefard
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical Engineering DepartmentUrmia UniversityUrmiaIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Mechanical Engineering DepartmentIran University of Science and TechnologyNarmak, TehranIran

Personalised recommendations