Advertisement

A steady-state based model applied to small wind turbines

  • Gustavo M. FariasEmail author
  • Marcos A. B. Galhardo
  • Jerson R. P. Vaz
  • João T. Pinho
Technical Paper
  • 20 Downloads

Abstract

Wind turbines have been widely used, and one of the main reasons is the low environmental impact caused by these technologies. However, for the Amazon Region the design of small turbines is still challenging, because most of the turbines available present low capacity factor. Hence, this work deals with a new methodology to assess the energy production of a small wind turbine with high capacity factor, specially designed for the Brazilian Amazon Region. The blade element theory was employed into the dynamic equation of the powertrain, in order to establish a steady-state model. Experimental data were obtained using a bench setup developed to test small electric generators. Data for the shaft rotation speed of a synchronous generator with permanent magnets were measured. The interception between mechanical power and generator curves was also proposed to calculate the operating condition of the turbine. All simulations were made in an autonomous system, using a height of 15 m above ground level in the city of Salinópolis on the coastal area of the state of Pará, Brazil. The capacity factor verified was higher than those of two wind turbines of 1 kW available on the market. This result shows that the use of a turbine adapted to low average wind speeds can contribute to a better use of the available wind potential in the region.

Keywords

Small wind turbines Power curve estimation Energy production Electric generator test 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank CNPq, CAPES, GEDAE, INCT-EREEA, PROCAD/CAPES (Agreement: 88881.200549/2018-01), and PROPESP/UFPA for financial support.

References

  1. 1.
    Akour SN, Al-Heymari M, Ahmed T, Khalil KA (2018) Experimental and theoretical investigation of micro wind turbine for low wind speed regions. Renew Energy 116:215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Grieser B, Sunak Y, Madlener R (2015) Economics of small wind turbines in urban settings: an empirical investigation for Germany. Renew Energy 78:334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eletrobras-Cepel, Atlas do Potencial Eólico Brasileiro (2016)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tummala A, Velamati RK, Sinha DK, Indraja V, Krishna VH (2016) A review on small scale wind turbines. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 56:1351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pagnini LC, Burlando M, Repetto MP (2015) Experimental power curve of small-size wind turbines in turbulent urban environment. Appl Energy 154:112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wright A, Wood D (2004) The starting and low wind speed behaviour of a small horizontal axis wind turbine. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 92(14):1265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wood D (2011) Small wind turbines: analysis, design, and application. Springer, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vaz JR, Wood DH, Bhattacharjee D, Lins EF (2018) Drivetrain resistance and starting performance of a small wind turbine. Renew Energy 117:509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Azevedo TPSD (2012) Bancada experimental para ensaios em geradores elétricos utilizados em aerogeradores de pequeno porte. Master’s thesisGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    WEG Industrial Electric Motors—TEFC-W21 high efficiency. http://old.weg.net/ca/Products-Services/Electric-Motors/Industrial-Electric-Motors/TEFC-W21-High-Efficiency. Accessed 07 June 2018
  11. 11.
    IEEE (1996) IEEE Std 115-1995: IEEE guide: test procedures for synchronous machines part I-acceptance and performance testing part II-test procedures and parameter determination for dynamic analysis. IEEEGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Frade LCS, Pinho JT (2002) In: IEEE-PES T&D Latin AmericaGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rohatgi JS, Nelson V, West Texas A (1994) Wind characteristics: an analysis for the generation of wind power. Alternative Energy Institute, West Texas A&M University, CanyonGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mesquita ALA, Mesquita ALA, Palheta FC, Vaz JRP, de Morais MVG, Gonçalves C (2014) A methodology for the transient behavior of horizontal axis hydrokinetic turbines. Energy Convers Manag 87:1261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Njiri JG, Söffker D (2016) State-of-the-art in wind turbine control: trends and challenges. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 60:377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rueda SAJ, Vaz JRP (2016) Uma abordagem para o comportamento transiente de turbinas eólicas de eixo horizontal (hawt) utilizando a teoria do elemento de pá. Ciênc Eng 24(2):95Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Salgado D, Del Castillo J (2014) Analysis of the transmission ratio and efficiency ranges of the four-, five-, and six-link planetary gear trains. Mech Mach Theory 73:218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Glauert H (1983) The elements of aerofoil and airscrew theory. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vaz JR, Wood DH (2016) Aerodynamic optimization of the blades of diffuser-augmented wind turbines. Energy Convers Manag 123:35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Drela M (1989) XFOIL: an analysis and design system for low Reynolds number airfoils. In: Mueller TJ (ed) Low Reynolds number aerodynamics. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Favacho BI, Vaz JRP, Mesquita ALA, Lopes F, Moreira ALS, Soeiro NS, Rocha OFLd (2016) Contribution to the marine propeller hydrodynamic design for small boats in the Amazon region. Acta Amazonica 46(1):37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Benini E (2004) Significance of blade element theory in performance prediction of marine propellers. Ocean Eng 31(8):957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Glauert H (1935) Airplane propellers. In: Durand WF (ed) Aerodynamic theory, vol 4. Springer, New York, p 191Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Holanda P, Blanco C, Mesquita A, Brasil Junior A, Figueiredo N, Macedo E, Secretan Y (2017) Assessment of hydrokinetic energy resources downstream of hydropower plants. Renew Energy 101:1203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Selig M, McGranahan B (2004) In: 42nd AIAA aerospace sciences meeting and exhibit, p 1188Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pourrajabian A, Ebrahimi R, Mirzaei M (2014) Applying micro scales of horizontal axis wind turbines for operation in low wind speed regions. Energy Convers Manag 87:119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Singh RK, Ahmed MR (2013) Blade design and performance testing of a small wind turbine rotor for low wind speed applications. Renew Energy 50:812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    do Rio DATD, Mesquita ALA, Vaz JRP, Blanco CJC, Pinho JT et al (2014) An extension of the blade element momentum method applied to diffuser augmented wind turbines. Energy Convers Manag 87:1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Barbosa DL, Vaz JR, Figueiredo SW, Silva MdOE, Lins EF, Mesquita AL (2015) An investigation of a mathematical model for the internal velocity profile of conical diffusers applied to dawts. An Acad Bras Ciênc 87(2):1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Turbines W (2005) Part 12-1: power performance measurements of electricity producing wind turbines; iec tc/sc 88. Technical report, IEC 61400-12-1Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gustavo M. Farias
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marcos A. B. Galhardo
    • 2
  • Jerson R. P. Vaz
    • 1
  • João T. Pinho
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of TechnologyFederal University of ParáBelémBrazil
  2. 2.Faculty of Electrical and Biomedical Engineering, Institute of TechnologyFederal University of ParáBelémBrazil

Personalised recommendations