Performance investigation of ice plant working with R134a and different concentrations of POE/TiO2 nanolubricant using experimental method

  • Shailendra Singh ChauhanEmail author
  • Ritesh Kumar
  • S. P. S. Rajput
Technical Paper


This paper experimentally investigates the performance of an ice plant test rig for varied volume concentrations (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%) of TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in polyol ester (POE) lubricating oil using R134a as a working refrigerant. The performance of the test rig is investigated on the basis of parameters including brine temperature in the brine tank (pull-down time), pressure ratio, compressor power input, freezing capacity, COP, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and density at suction and discharge end of compressor. Analysis is based on temperature and pressure readings taken using suitable thermocouples and gauges fitted to the test rig. Refrigerant properties are acquired using REFPROP 9.1 software development by NIST. The concentration of 0.2% is found as the optimum since the lowest compressor power input and the highest COP are achieved at this concentration. The result indicates that the mixture of R134a/nanolubricant (POE/TiO2) worked safely and efficiently in the rig, and the performance is found better than operated with mixture of R134a/lubricant (POE), with 15.8% less power consumption in the compressor and 29.1% increase in the COP at 0.2% volume concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles. Moreover, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and density of the mixture of R134a/nanolubricant (POE/TiO2) are found higher compared to mixture of R134a/lubricant (POE) and are increasing with increasing the TiO2 concentration.


TiO2 concentration POE R134a Coefficient of performance Compressor power input Nanolubricant 

List of symbols


Specific heat (kJ kg−1 K−1)


Specific enthalpy (kJ kg−1)


Thermal conductivity (Wm−1K−1)


Mass (kg)

\( \dot{m} \)

Mass flow rate (kg s−1)


Pressure (bar)

\( \dot{Q}_{{\text{f}}} \)

Freezing capacity (kW)


Temperature (°C)


Specific volume (m3 kg)


Compressor power input (kW)


Density (kg m−3)


Dynamic viscosity (m Pa-s)


Nanoparticle volume concentration (%)




Coefficient of performance


Carbon nanotube




High pressure


Low pressure


Mineral oil


Mega watt hour


Polyol ester


Polyalkylene glycol


Titanium dioxide


Tons of refrigeration


Vapour compression refrigeration system



Compressor inlet


Compressor outlet


Condenser outlet


Evaporator inlet













Authors appreciate the support given by Amity Institute of Technology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida (U.P.), and Maulana Azad National institute of technology, Bhopal (M.P.).


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Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shailendra Singh Chauhan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ritesh Kumar
    • 2
  • S. P. S. Rajput
    • 3
  1. 1.Amity Institute of TechnologyAmity University Uttar PradeshNoidaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringGovernment Engineering CollegeJhalawarIndia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMaulana Azad National Institute of TechnologyBhopalIndia

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