Advertisement

Performance analysis of injectors for a hybrid propulsion system

  • Shirley M. Pedreira
  • Rita C. L. Dutra
  • José I. S. Oliveira
  • Rene F. B. Gonçalves
  • Roberta J. Rocha
  • José A. F. F. Rocco
Technical Paper
  • 11 Downloads

Abstract

This paper presents a study about injectors, where the radial injector was evaluated. This type of injector was chosen because only a small amount of information on it was found. Thus, the radial injector will be compared with other two types of injectors, the orifice plate and the swirl, in terms of parameters, such as discharge coefficient (Cd), regression rate r, and specific impulse (Isp). In respect of the regression rate, the values appeared increasingly with the test pressure and, consequently, with the injection pressure. Thus, each injector model responded in the same way as for the regression rate behavior; however, the same behavior was not observed in relation to the specific impulse.

Keywords

Hybrid propulsion Injectors Paraffin 

List of symbols

\(A\)

Empirical constant of fuel provided in pair with ‘n

\(A_{\text{b}}\)

Base area

\(A_{\text{inj}}\)

Injection area

\(c^{*}\)

Characteristic velocity

\(C{}_{\text{d}}\)

Discharge coefficient

\(D_{\text{f}}\)

External grain diameter

\(D_{\text{i}}\)

Internal grain diameter

\(D_{\text{fa}}\)

Average grain diameter

\({\text{d}}t\)

Time derivative

\(F\)

The thrust force

\(g_{0}\)

Gravity acceleration

\(G_{0}\)

Oxidizer mass velocity

\(I_{\text{sp}}\)

Specific impulse

\(I_{\text{t}}\)

Total impulse

\(L\)

Grain length

\(\dot{m}_{\text{inj}}\)

Mass flow in the injection area

\(\dot{m}\)

Mass flow in kg/s

\(\dot{m}_{\text{p}}\)

Total effective propellant mass

\(\dot{m}_{\text{web}}\)

Mass flow on web thickness

\(n\)

Exponent of G0 provided in pair with ‘a

\(r_{\text{web}}\)

Fuel flow rate on web thickness

\(r_{{}}\)

Regression rate or burning time

\(t_{\text{b}} ,t\)

Burn time, time

\(\dot{w}\)

Total weight flow rate of propellants

\(\Delta P\)

Charge loss in the injector

\(\rho_{\text{f}}\)

Fuel density or specific mass

\(\rho_{\text{inj}}\)

Oxidizer density

Notes

Acknowledgements

To CAPES (Commission for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) which provides postdoctoral fellowship to first author and other fellowship by PVNS (National Senior Visiting Professor Program) to last author.

References

  1. 1.
    Lee C, Na Y, Lee J-W, Byun Y-H (2007) Effect of induced swirl flow on regression rate of hybrid rocket fuel by helical grain configuration. Sci Direct Aerosp Sci Technol 11(1):68–76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ast.2006.07.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Karabeyoglu MA, Cantwell BJ, Altman D (2001) Development and testing of paraffin-based hybrid rocket fuels. In: Proceedings of the thirty-seven on the joint propulsion conference and exhibit. AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE, Salt Lake City, Utah, pp 1–25Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mazzetti A, Merotto L, Pinarello G (2016) Paraffin-based hybrid rocket engines applications: a review and a market perspective. Acta Astroun 126:286–297.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2016.04.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barnhart DJ, Vladimirova T (2007) Sweeting MN very-small-satellite design for distributed space missions. J Spacecr Rockets 44(6):1294–1306.  https://doi.org/10.2514/3.13046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Santos Genivaldo P (2014) Experimental hybrid propulsion rocket engine operating with paraffin fuel grain and gaseous oxygen. PhD thesis, Aeronautics Institute of Technology, São José dos Campos, Brazil, p 197Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yuasa S, Ide T, Masugi M, Sakurai T, Shiraishi N, Shimada T (2011) Visualization and emission spectra of flames in combustion chamber of swirling-oxidizer-flow-type hybrid rocket engines. J Therm Sci Technol 6(2):268–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chandler AA, Cantwell BJ, Hubbard GS, Karabeyoglu A (2011) Feasibility of a single port hybrid propulsion system for a mars ascent vehicles. Sci Direct Aerosp Sci Technol 69:1066–1072.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2011.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lips HR (1977) Experimental investigation on hybrid rocket engines using highly aluminized fuels. J Spacecr 14(9):539–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sutton GP, Biblarz O (2001) Rocket propulsion elements: an introduction to the engineering of rockets, vol 1, 7th edn. Wiley, NewYork, p 764Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Carmicino C, Sorge AR (2006) Influence of a conical axial injector on hybrid rocket. J Propul Power 22(5):984–995.  https://doi.org/10.2514/1.19528 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lefebvre AH (1983) Gas turbine combustion, 1st edn. Taylor & Francis, London, p 531Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Santos GP, Pedreira SM, Lacava PT (2012) Physical property and carbon black distribution impact on propulsion efficiency of paraffin-based fuel. In: Proceedings of the international mechanical engineering congress and exposition. ASME, IMECE2012, Houston, TX, pp 529–542Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Karabeyoglu MA, Cantwell BJ, Altman D (2002) Combustion of liquefying hybrid propellants: part 1, general theory. J Propuls Power 18(3):610–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lacava PT, Barros TM (2010) Protótipo de Motor Foguete Movido a Propelente Híbrido. In: Proceeding Anais do XVI Encontro de Iniciação Científica e Pós-Graduação do ITA—XVI ENCITA. Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campos, SP, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Anderson JD Jr (2001) Fundamentals of aerodynamics, 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 892Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Boardman TA, Brinton D, Carpenter RL (1995) Na experimental investigation of pressure oscillations and their suppression in subscale hybrid rocket motors. In: 31 st AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE joint propulsion conference and exhibit, San Diego, CA, pp 1–24Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    ALFA INSTRUMENTOS SA (2018) Load cell [personal message]. Message found by shirley.mota.314159@gmail.comGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
    Humble RW, Henry GN, Larson WJ (1995) Space propulsion analysis and design, 1st edn. McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, p 631pGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
    Soller S, Wagner R, Kau HP (2005) Characterization of main chamber injectors for GOX/kerosene in a single element rocket combustor. In: Proceedings of the fourth-one on the joint propulsion conference and exhibit. AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE, Tucson, AZ, pp 1–12.  https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2005-3750
  22. 22.
    Carmicino C, Sorge AR (2007) Performance comparison between two different injector configurations in a hybrid rocket. Sci Direct Aerosp Sci Technol 11(1):61–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ast.2006.08.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shirley M. Pedreira
    • 1
  • Rita C. L. Dutra
    • 1
  • José I. S. Oliveira
    • 2
  • Rene F. B. Gonçalves
    • 1
  • Roberta J. Rocha
    • 3
  • José A. F. F. Rocco
    • 1
  1. 1.Aeronautics Institute of TechnologySão José dos Campos, São PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Institute of Aeronautics and SpaceSão José dos Campos, São PauloBrazil
  3. 3.AvibrásSão José dos Campos, São PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations