Experimental investigations to enhance the machining performance of tungsten carbide tool insert using microwave treatment process

  • Durwesh Jhodkar
  • M. Amarnath
  • H. Chelladurai
  • J. Ramkumar
Technical Paper
  • 46 Downloads

Abstract

Currently, machining industries are moving towards good product quality and better productivity. Adverse machining conditions result in rapid tool wear, reduction in surface finish, and increase in cutting forces. Premature and gradual tool failures increase machining costs. Tool hardness is the significant mechanical property that facilitates tool to hold up in unpleasant machining conditions and reduces tool wear and cutting forces. This paper describes the results of experiments carried out to study the performance of carbide tool inserts which were subjected to microwave treatment. The machining performance of the tool inserts was evaluated in terms of flank wear, auxiliary flank wear, surface roughness, and cutting force measurement. Cutting parameters, i.e., feed, speed, and depth of cut, were kept constant in dry-cutting condition. The enhancement in mechanical properties was studied using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis. Results indicate that microwave-irradiated tool inserts perform better during machining of AISI 1040 steel as compared to untreated insert.

Keywords

Tool wear Microwave treatment Hardness Surface finish Auxiliary wear 

Abbreviations

AISI

American iron and steel Institute

WC/Co

Cemented carbide

MQL

Minimum quantity lubrication

CBN

Cubic boron nitride

CVD

Compress vapor deposition

GRPF

Glass fiber-reinforced plastic

ASTM

American society for testing and material

Fz

Cutting force

Vc

Cutting speed

Al2O3

Aluminum oxide

SiO2

Silicon dioxide

CoxWyC

Complex carbide phase

ε

Dielectric loss factor

ε

Dielectric constant

η

Eta phase

Vb

Average flank wear

Va

Average auxiliary wear

TL

Tool life

Ra

Average surface roughness

References

  1. 1.
    Moetakef IB, Yussefin NZ (2009) Dynamic simulation of boring process. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49:1096–1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stephenson DA, Agapiou JS (2016) Metal cutting theory and practice. CRC Press 2:500–658Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boothroyd G (1988) Fundamentals of metal machining and machine tools. Crc Press 3:140–400Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Trent EM (1959) Tool wear and machinability. Inst Prod Eng J 38(3):105–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sreejith PS, Ngoi BK (2000) Dry machining: machining of the future. J MateProc Tech 101(1):287–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Trent EM, Wright PK (2000) Metal cutting. Butterworth-Heinemann 4:140–200Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dhar NR, Islam S, Kamruzzaman M, Paul S (2006) Wear behavior of uncoated carbide inserts under dry, wet and cryogenic cooling conditions in turning C-60 steel. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 28(2):146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dhar NR, Kamruzzaman M (2007) Cutting temperature, tool wear, surface roughness and dimensional deviation in turning AISI-4037 steel under cryogenic condition. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 47(5):754–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rao KV, Murthy BS, Rao NM (2013) Cutting tool condition monitoring by analyzing surface roughness, work piece vibration and volume of metal removed for AISI 1040 steel in boring. Measurement 46(10):4075–4084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Khan MMA, Mithu MAH, Dhar NR (2009) Effects of minimum quantity lubrication on turning AISI 9310 alloy steel using vegetable oil-based cutting fluid. J Mat Proc Tech 209(15):5573–5583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yao Z, Stiglich JJ, Sudarshan TS (1999) Nano-grained tungsten carbide–cobalt (WC/Co). Materials Modification, Inc, Fairfax, VA, pp 1–27Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arsecularatne JA, Zhang LC, Montross C (2006) Wear and tool life of tungsten carbide, PCBN and PCD cutting tools. Int J of Mach Tools and Manuf 46(5):482–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Clark DE, Sutton WH (1996) Microwave processing of materials. Annu Rev Mater Sci 26(1):299–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    AgrawalD Cheng J, Lackner A, Ferstl W (1999) Microwave sintering of commercial WC/Co based hard metal tools. Proc Euro PM 99:175–182Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Meredith R (1998) Engineers handbook of industrial microwave heating. Inst Electr Eng, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    VaradaRajan YS, Vijayaraghavan L, Krishnamurthy R, Bhanuprasad VV (2006) Performance enhancement through microwave irradiation of K20 carbide tool machining Al/SiC metal matrix composite. J Mat Pro Tech 173(2):185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ramkumar J, Malhotra SK, Krishnamurthy R (2005) Effect of microwave treatment on WC inserts for drilling of GFRP composites. Mach Sci Tech 9(2):263–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rajkumar K, Rajan P, Charles JM (2014) Microwave heat treatment on aluminum 6061 alloy-boron carbide composites. Proced Eng 86:34–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ripley EB, Douhlas DM, Hallman RL, Morrell JS, Oberhaus JA, Seals RD, Warren BC (2004) Current advances in microwave processing of metals and related emerging technologies. In: Proceedings of the Fourth World Congress on Microwave and Radio frequency Applications, Arnold, MD: 302–310Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ripley EB, Oberhaus JA (2005) Melting and heat treating metals using microwave heating. Ind Heat 72:65–69Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Holcombe CE, Dykes NL, TiegsTN (1992) Method of nittriding,carburizing or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves. US Patent 5154779Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Loganathan D, Gnanavelbabu A, Rajkumar K, Ramadoss R (2014) Effect of microwave heat treatment on mechanical properties of AA6061 sheet metal. Proced Eng 97:1692–1697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Aravindan S, Krishnamurthy R (1999) Joining of ceramic composites by microwave heating. Mater Lett 38(4):245–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rajkumar K, Aravindan S (2010) Tribological performance of microwave-heat-treated copper–graphite composites. Tribol Lett 37(2):131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mallika K, Komanduri R (1999) Diamond coatings on cemented tungsten carbide tools by low-pressure microwave CVD. Wear 224(2):245–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ramkumar J, AravindanS Malhotra SK, Krishnamurthy R (2002) Enhancing the metallurgical properties of WC insert (K-20) cutting tool through microwave treatment. Mat Lett 53(3):200–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Johansson T, Uhrenius B (1978) Phase equilibria, isothermal reactions, and a thermodynamic study in the Co-WC system at 1150 C. Metal Sci 12(2):83–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    LeRoux H (1986) Study of recarburised eta-phase by transmission electron microscopy. In: Science of hard materials. Proceedings of the international conference 20: 355Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bryson WE (1999) Cryogenics. Hanser Gardner Publications, Cincinnati, pp 81–107Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    OzbekNA Çiçek A, Gülesin M, Ozbek O (2016) Effect of cutting conditions on wear performance of cryogenically treated tungsten carbide inserts in dry turning of stainless steel. TriboInt 94:223–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gill SS, Singh J, Singh H, Singh R (2011) Investigation on wear behavior of cryogenically treated TiAlN coated tungsten carbide inserts in turning. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 51(1):25–33MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Karandikar JM, Abbas AE, Schmitz TL (2014) Tool life prediction using Bayesian updating. Part 1: milling tool life model using a discrete grid method. Precis Eng 38(1):9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Alauddin M, Baradie MA (1997) Tool life model for end milling steel (190 BHN). J Mater Process Technol 68(1):50–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jemielniak K, Szafarczyk M, Zawistowski J (1985) Difficulties in tool life predicting when turning with variable cutting parameters. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 34(1):113–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Avila RF, Abrao AM (2001) The effect of cutting fluids on the machining of hardened AISI 4340 steel. J of Mat Proc Tech 119(1):21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Archad JF (1953) Contact and rubbing of flank wear on cutting tool. J Appl Phys 2:27–254Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Su G, Liu Z (2010) An experimental study on influences of material brittleness on chip morphology. Int J of AdvManuf Tech 51(1–4):87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Li B (2011) Chip morphology of normalized steel when machining in different atmospheres with ceramic composite tool. Int J Ref Metals Hard Mat 29(3):384–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Information and Technology Design and ManufacturingJabalpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of TechnologyKanpurIndia

Personalised recommendations