Advertisement

Current Addiction Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 146–157 | Cite as

Media/Marketing Influences on Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Abuse

  • Kristina M. JacksonEmail author
  • Tim Janssen
  • Joy Gabrielli
Adolescent/Young Adult Addiction (T Chung, Section Editor)
  • 210 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Adolescent / Young Adult Addiction

Abstract

Purpose of Review

We describe the state of research on substance use portrayals in marketing and media, considering exposure to tobacco, alcohol, e-cigarette, and marijuana content. Putative mechanisms are offered, and recommendations are made for effective prevention strategies for mitigating the influence of these portrayals.

Recent Findings

There is consistent evidence that adolescents and young adults are highly exposed to substance use portrayals and that these portrayals are associated with subsequent substance use. Exposure via new media (social networking sites, brand Websites) has risen rapidly. Social norms and cognitions appear to at least partially account for the effects of portrayals on youth substance use.

Summary

Digital media has surpassed traditional marketing, which is concerning because youth have on-demand access to content and are active consumers of digital media. Developmentally appropriate media literacy interventions that include a parenting component and target multiple substances and media domains are recommended.

Keywords

Alcohol Smoking Media Advertising Marketing Adolescent Young adult 

Notes

Funding Information

This work was supported by grants K02 AA13938 (PI: Jackson), T32 AA007459 (PI: Monti), and T34 DA037202 (PI: Budney).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Miech RA, Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE. Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2016. Volume I: Secondary school students. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan; 2017.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schulenberg JE, Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Miech RA, Patrick ME. Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2016. Volume II: College students and adults ages 19–55. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan; 2017.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fowler T, Lifford K, Shelton K, Rice F, Thapar A, Neale MC, et al. Exploring the relationship between genetic and environmental influences on initiation and progression of substance use. Addiction. 2007;102(3):413–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pagan JL, Rose RJ, Viken RJ, Pulkkinen L, Kaprio J, Dick DM. Genetic and environmental influences on stages of alcohol use across adolescence and into young adulthood. Behav Genet. 2006;36(4):483–97.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    •• Leonardi-Bee J, Nderi M, Britton J. Smoking in movies and smoking initiation in adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis. Addiction. 2016;111(10):1750–63. This is a meta-analysis of 17 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that indicate that higher exposure to smoking in movies is associated with increased risk of smoking initiation. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    •• Jernigan D, Noel J, Landon J, Thornton N, Lobstein T. Alcohol marketing and youth alcohol consumption: a systematic review of longitudinal studies published since 2008. Addiction. 2017;112(S1):7–20. This is a systematic review of longitudinal studies on alcohol marketing and youth alcohol consumption that reported significant associations between exposure to alcohol marketing and drinking initiation and subsequent heavy drinking. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    •• Stautz K, Brown KG, King SE, Shemilt I, Marteau TM. Immediate effects of alcohol marketing communications and media portrayals on consumption and cognition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):465. This systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies indicated that exposure to alcohol advertisements, but not portrayals in films or television, had an effect on immediate alcohol consumption. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    •• Gupta H, Pettigrew S, Lam T, Tait RJ. A systematic review of the impact of exposure to internet-based alcohol-related content on young people’s alcohol use behaviours. Alcohol Alcohol. 2016;51(6):763–71. This systematic review reports significant associations between exposure to online alcohol content and describes how such peer-to-peer transmissions of marketers’ messages result in “intoxigenic” social environments. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    • Smith LA, Foxcroft DR. The effect of alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on drinking behaviour in young people: systematic review of prospective cohort studies. BMC Public Health. 2009;9(1):51. This is a review of longitudinal studies showing a moderate effect size between exposure to alcohol advertising, marketing, and portrayal and subsequent alcohol use in youth age 10-28 years old. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    • Scott S, Muirhead C, Shucksmith J, Tyrrell R, Kaner E. Does industry-driven alcohol marketing influence adolescent drinking behaviour? A systematic review. Alcohol Alcohol. 2016;52(1):84–94. This paper found largely positive but still mixed associations between specific marketing components (Price, Promotion, Product attributes and Place of sale/availability) and alcohol use in youth age 9–17 years old, with the strongest positive associations with promotional activity (e.g., advertising of alcohol products or merchandise). PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    The Common Sense Census: Media Use by Tweens and Teens | Common Sense Media [Internet]. Available from: https://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/the-common-sense-census-media-use-by-tweens-and-teens. Accessed 23 Feb 2018
  12. 12.
    Giles DC, Maltby J. The role of media figures in adolescent development: relations between autonomy, attachment, and interest in celebrities. Personal Individ Differ. 2004;36(4):813–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Meier PS. Alcohol marketing research: the need for a new agenda. Addiction. 2011;106(3):466–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    • Jernigan DH, Padon A, Ross C, Borzekowski D. Self-reported youth and adult exposure to alcohol Marketing in Traditional and Digital Media: results of a pilot survey. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2017;41(3):618–25. This was one of the first studies to compare alcohol advertising through traditional versus Internet/social media channels; youth were more likely than adults to report past exposure, particularly for Internet content. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    US Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: a report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. 2012.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    National Association of Attorneys General. Master Settlement Agreement. [Internet]. http://www.naag.org/assets/redesign/files/msa-tobacco/MSA.pdf (1998). Accessed 23 Feb 2018.
  17. 17.
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Family smoking prevention and tobacco control and federal retirement reform. [Internet]. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-111publ31/pdf/PLAW-111publ31.pdf (2009).
  18. 18.
    Bergamini E, Demidenko E, Sargent JD. Trends in tobacco and alcohol brand placements in popular US movies, 1996 through 2009. JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(7):634–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Morgenstern M, Stoolmiller M, Bergamini E, Sargent JD. Did limits on payments for tobacco placements in US movies affect how movies are made? Tob Control. 2017;26(1):105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dube SR, Arrazola RA, Lee J, Engstrom M, Malarcher A. Pro-tobacco influences and susceptibility to smoking cigarettes among middle and high school students—United States, 2011. J Adolesc Health. 2013;52(5):S45–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shadel WG, Martino SC, Setodji C, Scharf D. Momentary effects of exposure to prosmoking media on college students’ future smoking risk. Health Psychol. 2012;31(4):460–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Charlesworth A, Glantz SA. Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: a review. Pediatrics. 2005;116(6):1516–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Sargent JD, Weitzman M, Hipple BJ, Winickoff JP. Tobacco promotion and the initiation of tobacco use: assessing the evidence for causality. Pediatrics. 2006;117(6):e1237–e1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wellman RJ, Sugarman DB, DiFranza JR, Winickoff JP. The extent to which tobacco marketing and tobacco use in films contribute to children’s use of tobacco: a meta-analysis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160(12):1285–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hill AB. The environment and disease: association or causation. Proc R Soc Med. 1965;58(5):295–300.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    International Center for Alcohol Policies. Guiding principles: self-regulation of marketing communications for beverage alcohol. [Internet]. 2011. http://www.iard.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Guiding-Principles.pdf
  27. 27.
    Stern SR, Morr L. Portrayals of teen smoking, drinking, and drug use in recent popular movies. J Health Commun. 2013;18(2):179–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    •• Atkinson AM, Ross-Houle KM, Begley E, Sumnall H. An exploration of alcohol advertising on social networking sites: an analysis of content, interactions and young people’s perspectives. Addict Res Theory. 2017;25(2):91–102. This paper describes how social networking sites offer new and novel strategies to transmit alcohol marketing messages. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. Youth exposure to alcohol product advertising on local radio in 75 U.S. markets, 2009. John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. 2011.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television, 2001-2009. John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. 2012.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tucker JS, Miles JN, D’Amico EJ. Cross-lagged associations between substance use-related media exposure and alcohol use during middle school. J Adolesc Health. 2013;53(4):460–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    • Collins RL, Martino SC, Kovalchik SA, Becker KM, Shadel WG, D’Amico EJ. Alcohol advertising exposure among middle school–age youth: an assessment across all media and venues. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2016;77(3):384–92. This was a novel study that used a 14-day ecological momentary assessment to quantify adolescent exposure to alcohol advertisements across media and venues (e.g., outdoors; television), and to indicate racial/ethnic differences with greater rates of exposure among African American and Hispanic youth as compared to non-Hispanic White youth. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Scharf DM, Martino SC, Setodji CM, Staplefoote BL, Shadel WG. Middle and high school students’ exposure to alcohol-and smoking-related media: a pilot study using ecological momentary assessment. Psychol Addict Behav. 2013;27(4):1201–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Borzekowski DL, Ross CS, Jernigan DH, DeJong W, Siegel M. Patterns of media use and alcohol brand consumption among underage drinking youth in the United States. J Health Commun. 2015;20(3):314–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    DiFranza JR, Richards JW Jr, Paulman PM, et al. RJR Nabisco’s cartoon camel promotes camel cigarettes to children. JAMA. 1991;266(22):3149–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Noel JK, Xuan Z, Babor TF. Associations between thematic content and industry self-regulation code violations in beer advertising broadcast during the US NCAA basketball tournament. Subst Use Misuse. 2017;52(8):1076–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    • Babor TF. Editor’s corner: the role of public health surveillance in protecting young people from alcohol marketing. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2016;77(1):5–6. This is an Editorial urging public health researchers to monitor associations between alcohol marketing and youth alcohol consumption, citing plausible explanations supporting modifiable social and cognitive factors that may serve as mechanisms underlying these associations. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Anderson P, De Bruijn A, Angus K, Gordon R, Hastings G. Impact of alcohol advertising and media exposure on adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Alcohol Alcohol. 2009;44(3):229–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Slater MD, Henry KL. Prospective influence of music-related media exposure on adolescent substance-use initiation: a peer group mediation model. J Health Commun. 2013;18(3):291–305.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ross CS, Maple E, Siegel M, DeJong W, Naimi TS, Ostroff J, et al. The relationship between brand-specific alcohol advertising on television and brand-specific consumption among underage youth. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014;38(8):2234–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jamal A, Gentzke A, Hu SS, Cullen KA, Apelberg BJ, Homa DM, et al. Tobacco use among middle and high school students—United States, 2011–2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66(23):597–603.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Watson MC, Forshaw M. Why we shouldn’t normalise the use of e-cigarettes. BMJ. 2015;351:h3770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kornfield R, Huang J, Vera L, Emery SL. Rapidly increasing promotional expenditures for e-cigarettes. Tob Control. 2015;24(2):110–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    • Duke JC, Lee YO, Kim AE, Watson KA, Arnold KY, Nonnemaker JM, et al. Exposure to electronic cigarette television advertisements among youth and young adults. Pediatrics. 2014;134(1):e29–36. In one of the first studies to examine youth and young adult exposure television advertisements for e-cigarettes, a behavior for which marketing is currently unregulated, a dramatic increase in youth and young adult e-cigarette exposure was observed. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Grana RA, Ling PM. “Smoking revolution”: a content analysis of electronic cigarette retail websites. Am J Prev Med. 2014;46(4):395–403.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Agaku IT, Davis K, Patel D, Shafer P, Cox S, Ridgeway W, et al. A longitudinal study of the relationship between receptivity to e-cigarette advertisements and e-cigarette use among baseline non-users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, United States. Tob Induc Dis. 2017;15(1):42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    • Mantey DS, Cooper MR, Clendennen SL, Pasch KE, Perry CL. E-cigarette marketing exposure is associated with e-cigarette use among US youth. J Adolesc Health. 2016;58(6):686–90. This study showed significant associations between e-cigarette marketing across multiple channels (internet, print, retail, TV/movies) and both use of and susceptibility to use ecigarettes among middle and high school students. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Singh T, Marynak K, Arrazola RA, Cox S, Rolle IV, King BA. Vital signs: exposure to electronic cigarette advertising among middle school and high school students—United States, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;64(52):1403–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Portnoy DB, Wu CC, Tworek C, Chen J, Borek N. Youth curiosity about cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and cigars: prevalence and associations with advertising. Am J Prev Med. 2014;47(2):S76–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Farrelly MC, Duke JC, Crankshaw EC, Eggers ME, Lee YO, Nonnemaker JM, et al. A randomized trial of the effect of e-cigarette TV advertisements on intentions to use e-cigarettes. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49(5):686–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Miech RA, Johnston L, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg J, Patrick ME. Trends in use of marijuana and attitudes toward marijuana among youth before and after decriminalization: the case of California 2007–2013. Int J Drug Policy. 2015;26(4):336–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Caulkins JP. Advertising restrictions on Cannabis products for nonmedical use: necessary but not sufficient? Am Public Health Assoc. 2018;108:19–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Krauss MJ, Sowles SJ, Sehi A, Spitznagel EL, Berg CJ, Bierut LJ, et al. Marijuana advertising exposure among current marijuana users in the US. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017;174:192–200.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    • Bierut T, Krauss MJ, Sowles SJ, Cavazos-Rehg PA. Exploring marijuana advertising on Weedmaps, a popular online directory. Prev Sci. 2017;18(2):183–92. This study found relatively unrestricted access to marijuana advertising on Weedmaps, an online marijuana retail website with associated social media, which made health claims about the benefits of marijuana. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    • D’amico EJ, Miles JN, Tucker JS. Gateway to curiosity: medical marijuana ads and intention and use during middle school. Psychol Addict Behav. 2015;29(3):613–9. This study found reciprocal associations between exposure to advertising for medical marijuana and middle schooler marijuana use and intentions, suggesting the importance of regulating medical marijuana advertisements. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Primack BA, Kraemer KL, Fine MJ, Dalton MA. Media exposure and marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. Subst Use Misuse. 2009;44(5):722–39.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    • Barry AE, Bates AM, Olusanya O, Vinal CE, Martin E, Peoples JE, et al. Alcohol marketing on twitter and Instagram: evidence of directly advertising to youth/adolescents. Alcohol Alcohol. 2016;51(4):487–92. This was an experimental study documenting that underage user profiles could access, view, and interact with alcohol industry content on Twitter and Instagram. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    White V, Azar D, Faulkner A, Coomber K, Durkin S, Livingston M, et al. Adolescents’ exposure to paid alcohol advertising on television and their alcohol use: exploring associations over a 13-year period. Addiction. 2017;112:1742–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Polansky JR, Titus K, Lanning N, Glantz SA. Smoking in top-grossing US movies, 2012. San Francisco: University of California San Francisco. 2013.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Winpenny EM, Marteau TM, Nolte E. Exposure of children and adolescents to alcohol marketing on social media websites. Alcohol Alcohol. 2013;49(2):154–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Freeman B. New media and tobacco control. Tob Control. 2012;21(2):139–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Escobedo P, Cruz TB, Tsai K-Y, Allem J-P, Soto DW, Kirkpatrick MG, Pattarroyo M, Unger JB Monitoring Tobacco Brand Websites to Understand Marketing Strategies Aimed at Tobacco Product Users and Potential Users, Nic Tob Res. 2017. ntx200.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntx200
  63. 63.
    Jernigan DH, Rushman AE. Measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing on social networking sites: challenges and prospects. J Public Health Policy. 2014;35(1):91–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cabrera-Nguyen EP, Cavazos-Rehg P, Krauss M, Bierut LJ, Moreno MA. Young adults’ exposure to alcohol-and marijuana-related content on Twitter. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2016;77(2):349–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    D’amico EJ, Martino SC, Collins RL, Shadel WG, Tolpadi A, Kovalchik S, et al. Factors associated with younger adolescents’ exposure to online alcohol advertising. Psychol Addict Behav. 2017;31(2):212–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hoffman EW, Pinkleton BE, Weintraub Austin E, Reyes-Velázquez W. Exploring college students’ use of general and alcohol-related social media and their associations with alcohol-related behaviors. J Am Coll Heal. 2014;62(5):328–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    • Pokhrel P, Fagan P, Herzog TA, Laestadius L, Buente W, Kawamoto CT, et al. Social media e-cigarette exposure and e-cigarette expectancies and use among young adults. Addict Behav. 2018;78:51–8. This study indicated that social media e-cigarette exposure was associated with young adult e-cigarette use and that this was mediated through outcome expectancies (positive “smoking” experience, positive sensory experience). PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Unger JB, Bartsch L. Exposure to tobacco websites: associations with cigarette and e-cigarette use and susceptibility among adolescents. Addict Behav. 2018;78:120–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    • Richardson A, Ganz O, Vallone D. Tobacco on the web: surveillance and characterisation of online tobacco and e-cigarette advertising. Tob Control. 2015;24(4):341–7. Using meta-data from online banner/video advertising, this study found little evidence for cigarette smoking advertising but heavy advertising for e-cigarettes, which strongly featured messages of harm reduction or use for cessation. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hogg MA. Social identity theory. In: McKeown S., Haji R., Ferguson N. (eds) Understanding peace and conflict through social identity theory. 2016. Peace psychology book series. Springer, Cham. 2016. p. 3–17.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Slater MD. Reinforcing spirals: the mutual influence of media selectivity and media effects and their impact on individual behavior and social identity. Commun Theory. 2007;17(3):281–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Morgenstern M, Sargent JD, Sweeting H, Faggiano F, Mathis F, Hanewinkel R. Favourite alcohol advertisements and binge drinking among adolescents: a cross-cultural cohort study. Addiction. 2014;109(12):2005–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ho SS, Poorisat T, Neo RL, Detenber BH. Examining how presumed media influence affects social norms and adolescents’ attitudes and drinking behavior intentions in rural Thailand. J Health Commun. 2014;19(3):282–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    • Elmore KC, Scull TM, Kupersmidt JB. Media as a “super peer”: how adolescents interpret media messages predicts their perception of alcohol and tobacco use norms. J Youth Adolesc. 2017;46(2):376–87. This study showed associations between high school students’ media-related cognitions (e.g., similarity, realism, desirability, identification) and perceived social approval for and estimated prevalence of peer alcohol and tobacco use. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    McClure AC, Stoolmiller M, Tanski SE, Engels RC, Sargent JD. Alcohol marketing receptivity, marketing-specific cognitions, and underage binge drinking. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013;37(suppl 1):E404–E413.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    •• Nesi J, Rothenberg WA, Hussong AM, Jackson KM. Friends’ alcohol-related social networking site activity predicts escalations in adolescent drinking: mediation by peer norms. J Adolesc Health. 2017;60(6):641–7. This study investigates mediation by psychological mechanisms in the context of social media influences using longitudinal data. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    •• Janssen T, Cox MJ, Merrill JE, Barnett NP, Sargent JD, Jackson KM. Peer norms and susceptibility mediate the effect of movie alcohol exposure on alcohol initiation in adolescents. Psychol Addict Behav. 2017; Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000338. This study offers comprehensive longitudinal tests of mediation by multiple psychological mechanisms, prospectively predicting adolescent alcohol initiation.
  78. 78.
    Bandura A. Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1977.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    de Graaf A. Alcohol makes others dislike you: reducing the positivity of teens’ beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol use. Health Commun. 2013;28(5):435–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Martino SC, Kovalchik SA, Collins RL, Becker KM, Shadel WG, D’Amico EJ. Ecological momentary assessment of the association between exposure to alcohol advertising and early adolescents’ beliefs about alcohol. J Adolesc Health. 2016;58(1):85–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Collins RL, Martino SC, Kovalchik SA, D’Amico EJ, Shadel WG, Becker KM, et al. Exposure to alcohol advertising and adolescents’ drinking beliefs: role of message interpretation. Health Psychol. 2017;36(9):890–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Austin EW, Meili HK. Effects of interpretations of televised alcohol portrayals on children’s alcohol beliefs. J Broadcast Electron Media. 1994;38(4):417–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gerrard M, Gibbons FX, Houlihan AE, Stock ML, Pomery EA. A dual-process approach to health risk decision making: the prototype willingness model. Dev Rev. 2008;28(1):29–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hofmann W, Gschwendner T, Friese M, Wiers RW, Schmitt M. Working memory capacity and self-regulatory behavior: toward an individual differences perspective on behavior determination by automatic versus controlled processes. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2008;95(4):962–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Petty RE, Cacioppo JT, Schumann D. Central and peripheral routes to advertising effectiveness: the moderating role of involvement. J Consum Res. 1983;10(2):135–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Brown KG, Stautz K, Hollands GJ, Winpenny EM, Marteau TM. The cognitive and behavioural impact of alcohol promoting and alcohol warning advertisements: an experimental study. Alcohol Alcohol. 2015;51(3):354–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Alhabash S, McAlister AR, Kim W, Lou C, Cunningham C, Quilliam ET, et al. Saw it on Facebook, drank it at the bar! Effects of exposure to Facebook alcohol ads on alcohol-related behaviors. J Interact Advert. 2016;16(1):44–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Alhabash S, McAlister AR, Quilliam ET, Richards JI, Lou C. Alcohol’s getting a bit more social: when alcohol marketing messages on facebook increase young adults’ intentions to imbibe. Mass Commun Soc. 2015;18(3):350–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Cukier SN, Gabrielli J, Bergamini E, Li Z, Sargent JD. Trends in alcohol brand placements in top U.S. movies, 1996–2015. San Francisco, CA: Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting; 2017.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Jones SC, Andrews K, Caputi P. Alcohol-branded merchandise: association with Australian adolescents’ drinking and parent attitudes. Health Promot Int. 2014;31(2):314–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Siegel M, Ross CS, Albers AB, DeJong W, King C, Naimi TS, et al. The relationship between exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising and brand-specific consumption among underage drinkers–United States, 2011–2012. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2016;42(1):4–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Siegel M, DeJong W, Cioffi D, Leon-Chi L, Naimi TS, Padon AA, et al. Do alcohol advertisements for brands popular among underage drinkers have greater appeal among youth and young adults? Subst Abuse. 2016;37(1):222–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jones SC. Alcohol-branded merchandise ownership and drinking. Pediatrics. 2016;137:e20153970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gibbons FX, Kingsbury JH, Wills TA, Finneran SD, Dal Cin S, Gerrard M. Impulsivity moderates the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on adolescents’ willingness to drink. Psychol Addict Behav. 2016;30(3):325–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wills TA, Sargent JD, Stoolmiller M, Gibbons FX, Gerrard M. Movie smoking exposure and smoking onset: a longitudinal study of mediation processes in a representative sample of US adolescents. Psychol Addict Behav. 2008;22(2):269–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Koordeman R, Anschutz DJ, Engels RC. Self-control and the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on immediate alcohol consumption in male college students. Front Psychiatry. 2015;5:187.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Critchlow N, Moodie C, Bauld L, Bonner A, Hastings G. Awareness of, and participation with, digital alcohol marketing, and the association with frequency of high episodic drinking among young adults. Drugs Educ Prev Policy. 2016;23(4):328–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Folkvord F, Anschütz DJ, Nederkoorn C, Westerik H, Buijzen M. Impulsivity, “advergames,” and food intake. Pediatrics. 2014;133(6):1007–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Chambers T, Pearson AL, Stanley J, Smith M, Barr M, Mhurchu CN, et al. Children’s exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets: an objective analysis using GPS technology and wearable cameras. Health Place. 2017;46:274–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Borodovsky JT, Lee DC, Crosier BS, Gabrielli JL, Sargent JD, Budney AJUS. Cannabis legalization and use of vaping and edible products among youth. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017;177:299–306.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Glantz SA. Smoking in movies: a major problem and a real solution. Lancet. 2003;362(9380):258–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Gabrielli J, Traore A, Stoolmiller M, Bergamini E, Sargent JD. Industry television ratings for violence, sex, and substance use. Pediatrics. 2016;138:e20160487.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wakefield MA, Loken B, Hornik RC. Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour. Lancet. 2010;376(9748):1261–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sly DF, Hopkins RS, Trapido E, Ray S. Influence of a counteradvertising media campaign on initiation of smoking: the Florida“ truth” campaign. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(2):233–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    • Young B, Lewis S, Katikireddi SV, Bauld L, Stead M, Angus K, et al. Effectiveness of mass media campaigns to reduce alcohol consumption and harm: a systematic review. Alcohol Alcohol 2018  https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agx094. This was a systematic review that showed limited effectiveness of mass media public health campaigns to reduce alcohol consumption.
  106. 106.
    • Allara E, Ferri M, Bo A, Gasparrini A, Faggiano F. Are mass-media campaigns effective in preventing drug use? A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2015;5(9):e007449. This systematic review showed mixed effectiveness of mass media campaigns in reducing llicit drug consumption and intent to consume. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. The role of the media in promoting and reducing tobacco use. Bethesda: National Cancer Institute; 2008.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    • Allen JA, Duke JC, Davis KC, Kim AE, Nonnemaker JM, Farrelly MC. Using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use: a review. Am J Health Promot. 2015;30(2):e71–e82. This review of antitobacco media campaigns to reduce youth smoking behavior or cognitions showed effectiveness across racial/ethnic populations, especially for campaigns with intense images, sound, and editing and that include personal testimonials. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Czyzewska M, Ginsburg HJ. Explicit and implicit effects of anti-marijuana and anti-tobacco TV advertisements. Addict Behav. 2007;32(1):114–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Farrelly MC, Healton CG, Davis KC, Messeri P, Hersey JC, Haviland ML. Getting to the truth: evaluating national tobacco countermarketing campaigns. Am J Public Health. 2002;92(6):901–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Eintraub EW, Kristine A, Johnson K. Effects of general and alcohol-specific media literacy training on children’s decision making about alcohol. J Health Commun. 1997;2(1):17–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Banerjee SC, Greene K. Antismoking initiatives: effects of analysis versus production media literacy interventions on smoking-related attitude, norm, and behavioral intention. Health Commun. 2007;22(1):37–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Arke ET, Primack BA. Quantifying media literacy: development, reliability, and validity of a new measure. Educ Media Int. 2009;46(1):53–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Austin EW, Pinkleton BE. The viability of media literacy in reducing the influence of misleading media messages on young people’s decision-making concerning alcohol, tobacco, and other substances. Curr Addict Rep. 2016;3(2):175–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Hindmarsh CS, Jones SC, Kervin L. Effectiveness of alcohol media literacy programmes: a systematic literature review. Health Educ Res. 2015;30(3):449–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kupersmidt JB, Scull TM, Austin EW. Media literacy education for elementary school substance use prevention: study of media detective. Pediatrics. 2010;126(3):525–31.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kulis S, Nieri T, Yabiku S, Stromwall LK, Marsiglia FF. Promoting reduced and discontinued substance use among adolescent substance users: effectiveness of a universal prevention program. Prev Sci. 2007;8(1):35–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hecht ML, Graham JW, Elek E. The drug resistance strategies intervention: program effects on substance use. Health Commun. 2006;20(3):267–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hecht ML, Marsiglia FF, Elek E, Wagstaff DA, Kulis S, Dustman P, et al. Culturally grounded substance use prevention: an evaluation of the keepin’it REAL curriculum. Prev Sci. 2003;4(4):233–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Day LE, Miller-Day M, Hecht ML, Fehmie D. Coming to the new DARE: a preliminary test of the officer-taught elementary keepin’it REAL curriculum. Addict Behav. 2017;74:67–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Shensa A, Phelps-Tschang J, Miller E, Primack BA. A randomized crossover study of web-based media literacy to prevent smoking. Health Educ Res. 2015;31(1):48–59.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    • Primack BA, Douglas EL, Land SR, Miller E, Fine MJ. Comparison of media literacy and usual education to prevent tobacco use: a cluster-randomized trial. J Sch Health. 2014;84(2):106–15. This study showed the effectiveness of a school-based anti-smoking program for teaching media literacy and altering perceptions of the prevalence of smoking among adolescents. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Scull TM, Kupersmidt JB, Weatherholt TN. The effectiveness of online, family-based media literacy education for substance abuse prevention in elementary school children: study of the media detective family program. J Community Psychol. 2017;45(6):796–809.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Harakeh Z, Scholte RH, De Vries H, Engels RC. Parental rules and communication: their association with adolescent smoking. Addiction. 2005;100(6):862–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Mares SH, Lichtwarck-Aschoff A, Engels RC. Alcohol-specific parenting, adolescent alcohol use and the mediating effect of adolescent alcohol-related cognitions. Psychol Health. 2013;28(7):833–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lac A, Crano WD. Monitoring matters: meta-analytic review reveals the reliable linkage of parental monitoring with adolescent marijuana use. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2009;4(6):578–86.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Mejia R, Pérez A, Peña L, Morello P, Kollath-Cattano C, Braun S, et al. Parental restriction of mature-rated media and its association with substance use among Argentinean adolescents. Acad Pediatr. 2016;16(3):282–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    de Leeuw RN, Sargent JD, Stoolmiller M, Scholte RH, Engels RC, Tanski SE. Association of smoking onset with R-rated movie restrictions and adolescent sensation seeking. Pediatrics. 2011;127:e96–e558.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Thompson EM, Gunther AC. Cigarettes and cinema: does parental restriction of R-rated movie viewing reduce adolescent smoking susceptibility? J Adolesc Health. 2007;40(2):181–e1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    • Cox, MJ, Gabrielli JL, Janssen T, Jackson KM. Parental restriction of movie viewing prospectively predicts adolescent alcohol and marijuana initiation: implications for media literacy programs. Prev Sci (in press). This study showed that parental restriction of R-rated movies was protective of both alcohol and marijuana initiation, with youth who reported watching R-rated films despite parental restrictions at heightened risk for alcohol initiation. Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Shin Y, Miller-Day M, Pettigrew J, Hecht ML, Krieger JL. Typology of delivery quality: latent profile analysis of teacher engagement and delivery techniques in a school-based prevention intervention, keepin’it REAL curriculum. Health Educ Res. 2014;29(6):897–905.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Otten R, Harakeh Z, Vermulst AA, Van den Eijnden RJ, Engels RC. Frequency and quality of parental communication as antecedents of adolescent smoking cognitions and smoking onset. Psychol Addict Behav. 2007;21(1):1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Shin Y, Miller-Day M. A longitudinal study of parental anti-substance-use socialization for early adolescents’ substance-use behaviors. Commun Monogr. 2017;84(3):277–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Pettigrew J, Miller-Day M, Shin Y, Krieger JL, Hecht ML, Graham JW. Parental messages about substance use in early adolescence: extending a model of drug-talk styles. Health Commun. 2018;33(3):349–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    •• Collier KM, Coyne SM, Rasmussen EE, Hawkins AJ, Padilla-Walker LM, Erickson SE, et al. Does parental mediation of media influence child outcomes? A meta-analysis on media time, aggression, substance use, and sexual behavior. Dev Psychol. 2016;52(5):798. This study used meta-analysis to examine the role of parental mediation behaviors on the association between media influence and child behavior outcomes. Parental active mediation provided a protective effect for child risk for substance use. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristina M. Jackson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tim Janssen
    • 1
  • Joy Gabrielli
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Alcohol and Addiction StudiesBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  2. 2.Department of Data Science, Geisel School of MedicineDartmouth CollegeHanoverUSA

Personalised recommendations