Alcohol Stimulation and Sedation: a Critical Review of the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale
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Purpose of Review
The Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) is widely used to assess stimulant and sedative alcohol effects. This paper reviews (a) recent measurement developments, (b) behavioral and physiological correlates, and (c) the role of the BAES in refining theories of SR and pharmacological interventions.
An abbreviated scale (B-BAES) and a comprehensive measures of alcohol effects (SEAS) demonstrate strong psychometric properties and use of the BAES has helped refine the Differentiator Model of SR. Importantly, both BAES stimulation and sedation robustly predict risk for later alcohol problems, and the BAES has demonstrated utility in examining mechanisms of pharmacotherapy effects.
The BAES is the most widely used measure of SR and has informed both theory and practice. Recent findings point to important future directions including the need to (a) examine developmental influences, (b) refine our understanding of FH effects, and (c) consider expansion to capture novel aspects of SR.
KeywordsBiphasic Alcohol Effects Scale Alcohol response Stimulation Sedation Review Differentiator Model
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Stephen J. Boyd, William R. Corbin, Meghan E. Morean, and Christopher S. Martin declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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