Current Addiction Reports

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 209–220 | Cite as

Alcohol Stimulation and Sedation: a Critical Review of the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale

  • Stephen J. BoydEmail author
  • William R. Corbin
  • Meghan E. Morean
  • Christopher S. Martin
Alcohol (R Leeman, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Alcohol


Purpose of Review

The Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) is widely used to assess stimulant and sedative alcohol effects. This paper reviews (a) recent measurement developments, (b) behavioral and physiological correlates, and (c) the role of the BAES in refining theories of SR and pharmacological interventions.

Recent Findings

An abbreviated scale (B-BAES) and a comprehensive measures of alcohol effects (SEAS) demonstrate strong psychometric properties and use of the BAES has helped refine the Differentiator Model of SR. Importantly, both BAES stimulation and sedation robustly predict risk for later alcohol problems, and the BAES has demonstrated utility in examining mechanisms of pharmacotherapy effects.


The BAES is the most widely used measure of SR and has informed both theory and practice. Recent findings point to important future directions including the need to (a) examine developmental influences, (b) refine our understanding of FH effects, and (c) consider expansion to capture novel aspects of SR.


Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale Alcohol response Stimulation Sedation Review Differentiator Model 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Stephen J. Boyd, William R. Corbin, Meghan E. Morean, and Christopher S. Martin declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Franklin B. A drinker’s dictionary. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Gaz; 1737.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rush B. An inquiry into the effects of ardent spirits on the human body and mind. Philadelphia: Author; 1787.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Huss M. Alkoholismus Chronicus. 1849.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Goldberg L. Quantitative studies on alcohol tolerance in man. The influence of ethyl alcohol on sensory, motor and psychological functions referred to blood alcohol. Acta Physiol Scand [Internet]. 1943. [cited 2017 Feb 8]; Available from:
  5. 5.
    Jellinek E. The alcohol problem: formulations and attitudes. Q J Stud Alcohol. 1943;4:446–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jellinek E. The disease concept of alcoholism. Highland Park: Hillhouse Press; 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jellinek E. Phases of alcohol addiction. Q J Stud Alcohol. 1952;13:673–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    • Martin C, Earleywine M, Musty R, Perrine M, Swift R. Development and validation of the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993;17:140–6. Development and initial validation of the BAES supporting the hypothesized biphasic factor structure of the scale with stimulation ratings higher than sedative ratings during rising BACs, and sedative ratings higher than stimulant ratings during falling BACs.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Waller MB, Murphy JM, McBride WJ, Lumeng L, Li TK. Effect of low dose ethanol on spontaneous motor activity in alcohol-preferring and -nonpreferring lines of rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1986;24:617–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tucker JA, Vuchinich RE, Sobell MB. Alcohol consumption as a self-handicapping strategy. J Abnorm Psychol. 1981;90:220–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    de Wit H, Uhlenhuth EH, Pierri J, Johanson CE. Individual differences in behavioral and subjective responses to alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res [Internet]. 1987 [cited 2017 Feb 8];11:52–9. Available from:
  12. 12.
    O’Malley SS, Maisto SA. Factors affecting the perception of intoxication: dose, tolerance, and setting. Addict Behav. 1984;9:111–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nagoshi CT, Wilson JR. Influence of family alcoholism history on alcohol metabolism, sensitivity, and tolerance. Alcohol Clin Exp Res [Internet]. Wiley Online Library; 1987 [cited 2011 Oct 26];11:392–398. Available from:
  14. 14.
    Judd LL, Hubbard RB, Huey LY, Attewell PA, Janowsky DS, Takahashi KI. Lithium carbonate and ethanol induced “highs” in normal subjects. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1977;34:463–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pohorecky L. Biphasic action of ethanol. Biobehav Rev [Internet]. 1978. [cited 2017 Feb 8]; Available from:
  16. 16.
    Wise RA, Bozarth MA. A psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction. Psychol Rev. 1987;94:469–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stewart RB, Grupp LA. A simplified procedure for producing ethanol self-selection in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1984;21:255–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tabakoff B, Hoffman PL. Biochemical pharmacology of alcohol. In: Meltzer H, editor. Psychopharmacol. Third Gener. Prog. New York: Raven Press; 1987. p. 1521–6.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Newlin DB, Thomson JB. Alcohol challenge with sons of alcoholics: a critical review and analysis. Psychol Bull. 1990;108:383–402.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schuckit M. Self-rating of alcohol intoxication by young men with and without family histories of alcoholism. J Stud Alcohol [Internet]. 1980. [cited 2011 May 2]; Available from:
  21. 21.
    Schuckit MA. Subjective responses to alcohol in sons of alcoholics and control subjects. Arch Gen Psychiatry [Internet]. 1984 [cited 2011 May 2];41:879–84. Available from:
  22. 22.
    Haertzen CA, Hill HE, Belleville RE. Development of the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI): selection of items that are sensitive to the effects of various drugs. Psychopharmacologia. 1963;4:155–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    McNair D, Lorr M, Droppleman L. Manual for the profile of mood states. San Diego: Educational & Industrial Testing Service; 1971.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Maisto SA, Connors GJ, Tucker JA, McCollam JB, Adesso VJ. Validation of the sensation scale, a measure of subjective physiological responses to alcohol. Behav Res Ther. 1980;18:37–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    •• Morean ME, Corbin WR, Treat T A. The Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale: development and psychometric evaluation of a novel assessment tool for measuring subjective response to alcohol. Psychol Assess [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2013 Nov 5];25:780–95. Available from: Describes the development and validation of the Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale, which expands upon the BAES by incorporating valence (positive and negative) as well as arousal (stimulation and sedation).
  26. 26.
    •• King AC, McNamara PJ, Hasin DS, Cao D. Alcohol challenge responses predict future alcohol use disorder symptoms: a 6-year prospective study. Biol Psychiatry [Internet]. Elsevier; 2014;75:798–806. Available from: doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.08.001. In a large sample (N=104) of heavy social drinkers, greater stimulation and less sedation was evident in heavier drinkers compared to light drinkers following an intoxicating alcohol dose. This pattern of BAES response differentiated heavy and light drinkers over a 6-year follow-up period.
  27. 27.
    Roche DJO, Palmeri MD, King AC. Acute alcohol response phenotype in heavy social drinkers is robust and reproducible. Alcohol Clin Exp Res [Internet]. 2014;38:844–52. Available from:
  28. 28.
    •• King AC, de Wit H, McNamara PJ, Cao D. Rewarding, stimulant, and sedative alcohol responses and relationship to future binge drinking. Arch Gen Psychiatry [Internet]. 2011;68:389–99. Available from: Heavy drinkers endorsed more stimulation and less sedation compared to light drinkers. Among heavy drinkers, experiencing less sedation predicted more binge drinking during the 2-year follow up period.
  29. 29.
    Covault J, Pond T, Feinn R, Arias A. Dutasteride reduces alcohol’s sedative effects in men in a human laboratory setting and reduces drinking in the natural environment. Psychopharmacology (Berl) [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2014 Nov 11];231:3609–18. Available from:
  30. 30.
    Ray LA, Chin PF, Heydari A, Miotto K. A human laboratory study of the effects of quetiapine on subjective intoxication and alcohol craving. Psychopharmacology. 2011;217:341–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Swift RM, Whelihan W, Kuznetsov O, Buongiorno G, Hsuing H. Naltrexone-induced alterations in human ethanol intoxication. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151:1463–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Allen KJD, Gabbay FH. The amphetamine response moderates the relationship between negative emotionality and alcohol use. Alcohol Clin Exp Res [Internet]. 2013;37:348–60. Available from:
  33. 33.
    Gabbay FH. Family history of alcoholism and response to amphetamine: sex differences in the effect of risk. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005;29:773–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dickerson D, Pittman B, Ralevski E, Perrino A, Limoncelli D, Edgecombe J, et al. Ethanol-like effects of thiopental and ketamine in healthy humans. J Psychopharmacol [Internet]. 2010;24:203–11. Available from:
  35. 35.
    Schacht JP, Selling RE, Hutchison KE. Intermediate cannabis dependence phenotypes and the FAAH C385A variant: an exploratory analysis. Psychopharmacology. 2009;203:511–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Walsh K, Das RK, Kamboj SK. The subjective response to nitrous oxide is a potential pharmaco-endophenotype for alcohol use disorder: a preliminary study with heavy drinkers. Accepted. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016;0:1–5.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Morean ME, Corbin WR, Treat TA. Differences in subjective response to alcohol by gender, family history, heavy episodic drinking, and cigarette use: refining and broadening the scope of measurement. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2015;76:287–95.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Morean ME, Corbin WR. Subjective response to alcohol: a critical review of the literature. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010: 385–95.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    • Quinn PD, Fromme K. Subjective response to alcohol challenge: a quantitative review. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:1759–70. A meta-analysis comparing results of alcohol challenge studies using different measures of subjective response. In studies using the BAES, the authors find support for the Differentiator Model, with heavier drinkers reporting more stimulation and less sedation than lighter drinkers.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ray LA, Mackillop J, Monti PM. Subjective responses to alcohol consumption as endophenotypes: advancing behavioral genetics in etiological and treatment models of alcoholism. Subst Use Misuse. 2010;45:1742–65.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hu H-X, Zang G-B, Liu Z-L, Rueger SY, McNamara P, King AC, et al. Different subjective and objective responses to alcohol among heavy and light drinkers of Han and Uyghur nationalities in China. J Addict Nurs [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2017 Jan 4];26:191–202. Available from:
  42. 42.
    Rueger SY, Hu H, Mcnamara P, Cao D, Hao W, King AC. Differences in subjective response to alcohol in heavy- and light-drinking Chinese men versus Caucasian American men. Addiction. 2015;110:91–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lee JS, Kim SG, Jeong HJ, Kim JH, Yang YH, Jung WY. Difference of the naltrexone’s effects in social drinkers by spicy food preference. J Korean Med Sci. 2014;29:714–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    • Schrieks IC, Stafleu A, Kallen VL, Grootjen M, Witkamp RF, Hendriks HFJ. The biphasic effects of moderate alcohol consumption with a meal on ambiance-induced mood and autonomic nervous system balance: a randomized crossover trial. PLoS One. 2014;9:1–10. A Dutch version of the B-BAES was used to compare stimulation and sedation to autonomic nervous system activity. On the ascending limb, faster heart rate and greater skin conductance was associated with higher stimulation. Heart rate variability decreased following alcohol consumption and was negatively correlated with sedation.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rueger S, McNamara P, King A. Expanding the utility of the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) and initial psychometric support for the Brief-BAES (B-BAES). Alcohol Clin [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2011 May 19];33:916–24. Available from:
  46. 46.
    Rueger SY, King AC. Validation of the Brief Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (B-BAES). Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013;37:470–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Krishnan-Sarin S, O’Malley SS, Franco N, Cavallo DA, Morean M, Shi J, et al. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonism has differential effects on alcohol craving and drinking in heavy drinkers. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2015;39:300–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS Scales. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1988;54:1063–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bohn M, Krahn D, Staehler B. Development and initial validation of a measure of drinking urges in abstinent alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1995;19:600–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bujarski S, Ray LA. Subjective response to alcohol and associated craving in heavy drinkers vs. alcohol dependents: an examination of Koob’s allostatic model in humans. Drug Alcohol Depend [Internet]. Elsevier Ireland Ltd; 2014;140:161–7. Available from: doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.04.015.
  51. 51.
    Ray LA, MacKillop J, Leventhal A, Hutchison KE. Catching the alcohol buzz: an examination of the latent factor structure of subjective intoxication. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009;33:2154–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fromme K, Stroot E, Kaplan D. Comprehensive effects of alcohol: development and psychometric assessment of a new expectancy questionnaire. Psychol Assess [Internet]. 1993 [cited 2011 May 19];5:19–26. Available from:
  53. 53.
    Brown S, Christiansen B, Goldman M. The Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire: an instrument for the assessment of adolescent and adult alcohol expectancies. J Stud [Internet]. 1987 [cited 2011 May 2];48:483–91. Available from:
  54. 54.
    Nicolai J, Demmel R, Moshagen M. The comprehensive alcohol expectancy questionnaire: confirmatory factor analysis, scale refinement, and further validation. J Pers Assess. 2010;92:400–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Earleywine M, Martin CS. Anticipated stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol vary with dosage and limb of the blood alcohol curve. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993;17:135–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Morean ME, Corbin WR, Treat TA. The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale: development and psychometric evaluation of a novel assessment tool for measuring alcohol expectancies. Psychol Assess. 2011;24:1008–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Erblich J, Earleywine M, Erblich B, Bovbjerg DH. Biphasic stimulant and sedative effects of ethanol. Addict Behav. 2003;28:1129–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    King AC, Hasin D, O’Connor SJ, McNamara PJ, Cao D, O’Connor SJ, et al. A prospective 5-year re-examination of alcohol response in heavy drinkers progressing in alcohol use disorder. Biol Psychiatry [Internet]. Elsevier; 2015;79:1–10. Available from:
  59. 59.
    King AC, Roche DJO, Rueger SY. Subjective responses to alcohol: a paradigm shift may be brewing. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:1726–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    •• Kerfoot K, Pittman B, Ralevski E, Limoncelli D, Koretski J, Newcomb J, et al. Effects of family history of alcohol dependence on the subjective response to alcohol using the intravenous alcohol clamp. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013;37:2011–8. Compared BAES response to high and low dose delivered intravenously. Higher dose led to increased stimulation and sedation, but no group differences were found between participants with and without a family history of AUD.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vatsalya V, Stangl BL, Schmidt VY, Ramchandani VA. Characterization of hangover following intravenous alcohol exposure in social drinkers: methodological and clinical implications. Addict Biol. 2016.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Corbin WR, Gearhardt A, Fromme K. Stimulant alcohol effects prime within session drinking behavior. Psychopharmacology. 2008;197:327–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Boyd SJ, Schacht JP, Prisciandaro JJ, Voronin K, Anton RF. Alcohol-induced stimulation mediates the effect of a GABRA2 SNP on alcohol self-administrated among alcohol-dependent individuals. Alcohol Alcohol [Internet]. 2016;51:549–54. Available from:
  64. 64.
    Eckardt M, File S, Gessa G, Grant K, Guerri C, Hoffman P, et al. Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on the central nervous system. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998;22:998–1040.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Reed SC, Levin FR, Evans SM. Alcohol increases impulsivity and abuse liability in heavy drinking women. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol [Internet]. 2012;20:454–65. Available from: Clin Psychopharmacol 2012 Reed.pdf%5Cnpapers3://publication/doi/10.1037/a0029087.
  66. 66.
    Bidwell LC, MacKillop J, Murphy JG, Grenga A, Swift RM, McGeary JE. Biphasic effects of alcohol on delay and probability discounting. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol [Internet]. 2013;21:214–21. Available from:,
  67. 67.
    Magrys SA, Olmstead MC, Wynne-Edwards KE, Balodis IM. Neuroendocrinological responses to alcohol intoxication in healthy males: relationship with impulsivity, drinking behavior, and subjective effects. Psychophysiology. 2013;50:204–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Addicott MA, Marsh-Richard DM, Mathias CW, Dougherty DM. The biphasic effects of alcohol: comparisons of subjective and objective measures of stimulation, sedation, and physical activity. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31:1883–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Brkic S, Soderpalm B, Gordh AS. High cortisol responders to stress show increased sedation to alcohol compared to low cortisol responders: an alcohol dose-response study. Pharmacol Biochem Behav [Internet]. Elsevier Inc.; 2016;143:65–72. Available from: doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2016.02.004.
  70. 70.
    • Miranda R, Monti PM, Ray L, Treloar HR, Reynolds EK, Ramirez J, et al. Characterizing subjective responses to alcohol among adolescent problem drinkers. J Abnorm Psychol [Internet]. 2014;123:117–29. Available from: Assessed BAES stimulation and sedation in heavy drinking adolescents using ecological momentary assessment. Adolescent data was also compared to adults who completed a similar study design. Although adolescents were more sensitive to stimulation than adults, contrary to adult data, adolescents experienced decreased stimulation and increased sedation across the ascending limb.
  71. 71.
    Spear LP. Adolescent neurobehavioral characteristics, alcohol sensitivities, and intake: setting the stage for alcohol use disorders? Child Dev Perspect. 2011;5:231–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Conrod P, Peterson J. Biphasic effects of alcohol on heart rate are influenced by alcoholic family history and rate of alcohol ingestion. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997;21:140–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Conrod PJ, Peterson JB, Pihl RO. Reliability and validity of alcohol-induced heart rate increase as a measure of sensitivity to the stimulant properties of alcohol. Psychopharmacology. 2001;157:20–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Brunelle C, Barrett SP, Pihl RO. Relationship between the cardiac response to acute intoxication and alcohol-induced subjective effects throughout the blood alcohol concentration curve. Hum Psychopharmacol Clin Exp. Wiley Online Library; 2007;22:437–443.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    King A, Houle T, de Wit H, Holdstock L, Schuster A. Biphasic alcohol response differs in heavy versus light drinkers. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002;26:827–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ray LA, McGeary J, Marshall E, Hutchison KE. Risk factors for alcohol misuse: examining heart rate reactivity to alcohol, alcohol sensitivity, and personality constructs. Addict Behav. 2006;31:1959–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Levenson RW, Sher KJ, Grossman LM, Newman J, Newlin DB. Alcohol and stress response dampening: pharmacological effects, expectancy, and tension reduction. J Abnorm Psychol [Internet]. 1980;89:528–38. Available from:
  78. 78.
    Romanowicz M, Schmidt JE, Bostwick JM, Mrazek DA, Karpyak VM. Changes in heart rate variability associated with acute alcohol consumption: current knowledge and implications for practice and research. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:1092–105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Spaak J, Tomlinson G, McGowan C. Dose-related effects of red wine and alcohol on heart rate variability. Physiol [Internet]. 2010;2226–31. Available from:
  80. 80.
    Marczinski CA. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: consumption patterns and motivations for use in U.S. college students. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8:3232–45.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Miller KE. Energy drinks, race, and problem behaviors among college students. J Adolesc Health. 2008;43:490–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Marczinski C A, Fillmore MT, Henges AL, Ramsey M A, Young CR. Effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol on information processing, motor coordination and subjective reports of intoxication. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol [Internet]. 2012;20:129–38. Available from:
  83. 83.
    Marczinski C, Fillmore MT, Henges AL, Ramsey MA, Young CR, Griffin WC. Mixing an energy drink with an alcoholic beverage increases motivation for more alcohol in college students. Alcohol. Clin Exp Res [Internet]. 2013;37:276–83. Available from:
  84. 84.
    Mcketin R, Coen A. The effect of energy drinks on the urge to drink alcohol in young adults. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014;38:2279–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Peacock A, Bruno R, Martin FH, Carr A. The impact of alcohol and energy drink consumption on intoxication and risk-taking behavior. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013;37:1234–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Alford C, Hamilton-Morris J, Verster JC. The effects of energy drink in combination with alcohol on performance and subjective awareness. Psychopharmacology. 2012;222:519–32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Attwood AS, Rogers PJ, Ataya AF, Adams S, Munafò MR. Effects of caffeine on alcohol-related changes in behavioural control and perceived intoxication in light caffeine consumers. Psychopharmacology. 2012;221:551–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Peacock A, Bruno R, Martin FH. The subjective physiological, psychological, and behavioral risk-taking consequences of alcohol and energy drink co-ingestion. Alcohol Clin Exp Res [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2013 Jan 7];36:2008–15. Available from:
  89. 89.
    Marczinski CA, Fillmore MT, Bardgett ME, Howard MA. Effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol on behavioral control: risks for college students consuming trendy cocktails. Alcohol Clin Exp Res [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2011 Jul 28];35:1282–92. Available from:
  90. 90.
    Campbell ML, Bozec LJ, Mcgrath D, Barrett SP. Alcohol and tobacco co-use in nondaily smokers: an inevitable phenomenon? Drug Alcohol Rev. 2012;31:447–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Barrett SP, Tichauer M, Leyton M, Pihl RO. Nicotine increases alcohol self-administration in non-dependent male smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;81:197–204.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Barrett SP, Collins P, Stewart SH. The acute effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on video-lottery terminal gambling. Pharmacol Biochem Behav [Internet]. Elsevier Inc.; 2015;130:34–9. Available from: doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2014.12.015.
  93. 93.
    Peloquin MPJ, Hecimovic K, Sardinha J, Stewart SH, Barrett SP. The effect of snus on alcohol-related cigarette administration in dependent and non-dependent smokers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav [Internet]. Elsevier Inc.; 2013;114–115:97–102. Available from: doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2013.08.011.
  94. 94.
    Wall A-M, McKee SA, Hinson RE. Assessing variation in alcohol outcome expectancies across environmental context: an examination of the situational-specificity hypothesis. Psychol Addict Behav [Internet]. 2000 [cited 2013 Jul 18];14:367–75. Available from:
  95. 95.
    •• Corbin WR, Scott C, Boyd SJ, Menary KR, Enders CK. Contextual influences on subjective and behavioral responses to alcohol. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2015;23:59–70. Study assessed the influence of drinking context on stimulation and sedation by comparing BAES and SEAS scores when alcohol is consumed in a simulated bar versus a traditional lab. Few differences in SR were indicated between the two environments. Among women, alcohol consumed in the bar resulted in higher reported stimulation.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nakajima M, Kumar S, Wittmers L, Scott MS, Al’Absi M. Psychophysiological responses to stress following alcohol intake in social drinkers who are at risk of hazardous drinking. Biol Psychol [Internet]. Elsevier B.V.; 2013;93:9–16. Available from: doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2012.12.009.
  97. 97.
    Aston ER, Shannon EE, Liguori A. Anxiety, sedation, and simulated driving in binge drinkers. Psychol Addict Behav [Internet]. 2014;28:359–66. Available from:
  98. 98.
    Swift R, Aston ER. Pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2015;23:122.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Aubin HJ, Daeppen JB. Emerging pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence: a systematic review focusing on reduction in consumption. Drug Alcohol Depend [Internet]. Elsevier Ireland Ltd; 2013;133:15–29. Available from: doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.04.025.
  100. 100.
    Kalant H. Pharmacokinetics of ethanol: absorption, distribution and elimination. In: Begleiter H, Kissin B, editors. Pharmacol. Alcohol alcohol depend. New York: Oxford University Press; 1996. p. 15–58.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Suh JJ, Pettinati HM, Kampman KM, O’Brien CP. The status of disulfiram. J Clin Psychopharmacol [Internet]. 2006;26:290–302. Available from:
  102. 102.
    Littleton J. Acamprosate in alcohol dependence: how does it work? Addiction. 1995;90:1179–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Miranda R, MacKillop J, Treloar H, Blanchard A, Tidey JW, Swift RM, et al. Biobehavioral mechanisms of topiramate’s effects on alcohol use: an investigation pairing laboratory and ecological momentary assessments. Addict Biol. 2016;21:171–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Leggio L, Zywiak WH, McGeary JE, Edwards S, Fricchione SR, Shoaff JR, et al. A human laboratory pilot study with baclofen in alcoholic individuals. Pharmacol Biochem Behav [Internet]. Elsevier B.V.; 2013;103:784–91. Available from: doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2012.11.013.
  105. 105.
    Anton R, Drobes D, Voronin K, Durazo-Avizu R, Moak D. Naltrexone effects on alcohol consumption in a clinical laboratory paradigm: temporal effects of drinking. Psychopharmacology. 2004;173:32–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kranzler HR, Modesto-Lowe V, Van Kirk J. Naltrexone vs. nefazodone for treatment of alcohol dependence: a placebo-controlled trial. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000;22:493–503.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Killeen TK, Brady KT, Gold PB, Simpson KN, Faldowski RA, Tyson C, et al. Effectiveness of naltrexone in a community treatment program. Alcohol Clin Exp Res [Internet]. 2004;28:1710–7.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Chick J, Anton R, Checinski K, Croop R, Drummond DC, Farmer R, et al. A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of naltrexone in the treatment of alcohol dependence or abuse. Alcohol Alcohol [Internet]. 2000;35:587–93. Available from:
  109. 109.
    Ashenhurst JR, Bujarski S, Ray LA. Delta and kappa opioid receptor polymorphisms influence the effects of naltrexone on subjective responses to alcohol. Pharmacol Biochem Behav [Internet]. Elsevier Inc.; 2012;103:253–9. Available from: doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2012.08.019.
  110. 110.
    Ray LA, Hutchison KE. Effects of naltrexone on alcohol sensitivity and genetic moderators of medication response: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Davidson D, Palfai T, Bird C, Swift R. Effects of naltrexone on alcohol self-administration in heavy drinkers. Alcohol Clin Exp Res [Internet]. 1999;23:195–203. Available from:
  112. 112.
    Ray LA, Hutchison KE, MacKillop J, Miranda R, Audette A, Swift R, et al. Effects of naltrexone during the descending limb of the blood alcohol curve. Am J Addict. 2008;17:257–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ray LA, Barr C, Blendy J, Oslin D, Goldman D, Anton R. The role of the Asn40Asp polymorphism of the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) on alcoholism etiology and treatment: a critical review. Alcohol Clin Exp Res [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2014 Aug 15];36:385–94. Available from:
  114. 114.
    Davidson D, Swift R, Fitz E. Naltrexone increases the latency to drink alcohol in social drinkers. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1996;20:732–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Tidey JW, Monti PM, Rohsenow DJ, Gwaltney CJ, Miranda R, McGeary JE, et al. Moderators of naltrexone’s effects on drinking, urge, and alcohol effects in non-treatment-seeking heavy drinkers in the natural environment. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008;32:58–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Miranda R, Ray L, Blanchard A, Reynolds EK, Monti PM, Chun T, et al. Effects of naltrexone on adolescent alcohol cue reactivity and sensitivity: an initial randomized trial. Addict Biol. 2014;19:941–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    De Wit H, Svenson J, York A. Non-specific effect of naltrexone on ethanol consumption in social drinkers. Psychopharmacology. 1999;146:33–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    King AC, Volpicelli JR, Frazer A, O’Brien CP. Effect of naltrexone on subjective alcohol response in subjects at high and low risk for future alcohol dependence. Psychopharmacology. 1997;129:15–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Drobes D, Anton R, Thomas S, Voronin K. Effects of naltrexone and nalmefene on subjective response to alcohol among non-treatment-seeking alcoholics and social drinkers. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004;28:1362–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Maccioni P, Colombo G. Role of the GABAB receptor in alcohol-seeking and drinking behavior. Alcohol [Internet]. Elsevier Inc; 2009;43:555–8. Available from: doi: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2009.09.030.
  121. 121.
    Evans SM, Bisaga A. Acute interaction of baclofen in combination with alcohol in heavy social drinkers. Alcohol Clin Exp Res [Internet]. 2009;33:19–30. Available from:
  122. 122.
    Hutchison KE, Wood MD, Swift R. Personality factors moderate subjective and psychophysiological responses to d-amphetamine in humans. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol [Internet]. 1999;7:493–501. Available from:
  123. 123.
    Holdstock L, de Wit H. Individual differences in responses to ethanol and d-amphetamine: a within-subject study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001;25:540–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Ballard ME, de Wit H. Combined effects of acute, very-low-dose ethanol and delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy human volunteers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav [Internet]. Elsevier B.V.; 2011;97:627–31. Available from: doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2010.11.013.
  125. 125.
    Krupitsky EM, Burakov AM, Romanova TN, Grinenko NI, Grinenko AY, Fletcher J, et al. Attenuation of ketamine effects by nimodipine pretreatment in recovering ethanol dependent men: psychopharmacologic implications of the interaction of NMDA and L-type calcium channel antagonists. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001;25:936–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Krystal JH, Madonick S, Perry E, Gueorguieva R, Brush L, Wray Y, et al. Potentiation of low dose ketamine effects by naltrexone: potential implications for the pharmacotherapy of alcoholism. Neuropsychopharmacology [Internet]. 2006;31:1793–800. Available from:
  127. 127.
    Borgwardt SJ, Allen P, Bhattacharyya S, Fusar-Poli P, Crippa JA, Seal ML, et al. Neural basis of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol: effects during response inhibition. Biol Psychiatry [Internet]. Society of Biological Psychiatry; 2008;64:966–73. Available from: doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.05.011.
  128. 128.
    Ray LA, Bujarski S, Squeglia LM, Ashenhurst JR, Anton RF. Interactive effects of OPRM1 and DAT1 genetic variation on subjective responses to alcohol. Alcohol Alcohol. 2014;49:261–70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Bujarski S, Hutchison KE, Roche DJO, Ray LA. Factor structure of subjective responses to alcohol in light and heavy drinkers. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2015;39:1193–202.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen J. Boyd
    • 1
    Email author
  • William R. Corbin
    • 2
  • Meghan E. Morean
    • 3
  • Christopher S. Martin
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryOregon Health & Science UniversityPortlandUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyOberlin CollegeOberlinUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations