Brazilian Journal of Botany

, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 1145–1150 | Cite as

Territorial foraging behavior in the male Violet-capped Woodnymph is dependent on the density of patches of inflorescences of Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg. (Heliconiaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic forest

Short Communication

Abstract

Hummingbirds can vary their foraging strategies by adopting different behavior patterns. In Central America, the territorial behavior of these birds may be influenced by the floral resource availability in patches of Heliconia L. (Heliconiaceae) species. We investigated whether a similar pattern occurs in the South American species, Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg., in a fragment of Atlantic forest in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and whether agonistic interactions between the hummingbirds were correlated with the body weight. We conducted focal observations over two flowering seasons (2011/2012 and 2012/2013) in 159 patches of H. spathocircinata to evaluate whether territorial defense by the hummingbirds depends on floral resource availability (number of inflorescences per patch of 78.5 m2), using a linear regression analysis. This patch area (territory size) was defined arbitrarily, based on the typical size of inflorescence patches found within the study area. The potential relationship between body weight and agonism was evaluated using a Pearson correlation. We recorded 55 different territories defended by Thalurania glaucopis (Gmelin, 1788) in patches containing between eight and 16 inflorescences. The number of times the T. glaucopis males defended their territories was influenced by the number of inflorescences per patch. Agonism was positively correlated with body weight only for intraspecific interactions in T. glaucopis. This indicates that the foraging behavior of the pollinator of the South American H. spathocircinata may be influenced directly by the available number of inflorescences in patches of this plant.

Keywords

Agonism Dominance hierarchy Hummingbirds Pollination Resource availability Thalurania glaucopis 

References

  1. Abreu CRM, Vieira MF (2004) Os beija-flores e seus recursos florais em um fragmento florestal de Viçosa, sudeste brasileiro. Lundiana 5:129–134Google Scholar
  2. Altmann J (1974) Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behavior 48:227–267. doi:10.1073/pnas.0703993104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berry F, Kress WJ (1991) Heliconia: an identification guide. Smithsonian Institution Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  4. Betts MG, Hadley AS, Kress WJ (2015) Pollinator recognition by a keystone tropical plant. Proc Natl Acad Sci 112:3433–3438. doi:10.1073/pnas.1419522112 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Bruna EM, Andrade AS (2011) Edge effects on growth and biomass partitioning of an Amazonian understory herb (Heliconia acuminata; Heliconiaceae). Am J Bot 98:1727–1734. doi:10.3732/ajb.1000290 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruna EM, Kress WJ, Marques F, Silva OFD (2004) Heliconia acuminata reproductive success is independent of local floral density. Acta Amazon 34:467–471. doi:10.1590/S0044-59672004000300012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buzato S, Sazima M, Sazima I (2000) Hummingbird-pollinated floras at three Atlantic forest sites. Biotropica 32:824–841. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7429.2000.tb00621.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Côrtes MC, Uriarte M, Lemes MR et al (2013) Low plant density enhances gene dispersal in the Amazonian understory herb Heliconia acuminata. Mol Ecol 22:5716–5729. doi:10.1111/mec.12495 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cotton PA (1998) Temporal partitioning of a floral resource by territorial hummingbirds. Ibis 140:647–653. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1998.tb04710.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cruz DD, Mello MA, Van Sluys M (2006) Phenology and floral visitors of two sympatric Heliconia species in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Flora Morphol Distrib Funct Ecol Plants 201:519–527. doi:10.1016/j.flora.2005.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cruz DD, Abreu VHR, Van Sluys M (2007) The effect of hummingbird flower mites on nectar availability of two sympatric Heliconia species in a Brazilian Atlantic forest. Ann Bot 100:581–588. doi:10.1093/aob/mcm135 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Feinsinger P (1983) Variable nectar secretion in a Heliconia species pollinated by Hermit hummingbirds. Biotropica 15:48–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Feinsinger P, Colwell RK (1978) Community organization among neotropical nectar-feeding birds. Am Zool 18:779–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gill FB (1987) Ecological fitting: use of floral nectar in Heliconia stilesii Daniels by three species of hermit hummingbirds. Condor 89:779–787. doi:10.2307/1368525 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gowda V, Temeles EJ, Kress WJ (2012) Territorial fidelity to nectar sources by Purple-throated Caribs, Eulampis Jugularis. Wilson J Ornithol 124:81–86. doi:10.1676/11-061.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Guerra TJ, Galetto L, Silva WR (2014) Nectar secretion dynamic links pollinator behavior to consequences for plant reproductive success in the ornithophilous mistletoe Psittacanthus robustus. Plant Biol 16:956–966. doi:10.1111/plb.12146 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hinkelmann C, Kirwan GM (2013) Saw-billed Hermit (Ramphodon naevius). In: del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J, Christie DA, Juana E et al (eds) Handbook of the birds of the world alive. Lynx Edicions, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  18. Hixon MA, Carpenter FL, Paton DC (1983) Territory Area, flower density, and time budgeting in hummingbirds: an experimental and theoretical analysis. Am Nat 122:366–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Justino DG, Maruyama PK, Oliveira PE (2012) Floral resource availability and hummingbird territorial behaviour on a Neotropical savanna shrub. J Ornithol 153:189–197. doi:10.1007/s10336-011-0726-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kapoor JA (2012) Improved methods for color-marking hummingbirds. J F Ornithol 83:186–191. doi:10.1111/j.1557-9263.2012.00368.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kress WJ (1983) Self-incompatibility in Central American Heliconia. Evolution 37:735–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kress WJ (1985) Bat pollination of an old world Heliconia. Biotropica 17:302–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kress J (1990) The diversity and distribution of Heliconia (Heliconiaceae) in Brazil. Acta Bot Bras 4:159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Linhart YB (1973) Ecological and behavioral determinants of pollen dispersal in hummingbird-pollinated Heliconia. Am Nat 107:511–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lunau K, Papiorek S, Eltz T, Sazima M (2011) Avoidance of achromatic colours by bees provides a private niche for hummingbirds. J Exp Biol 214:1607–1612. doi:10.1242/jeb.052688 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Martén-Rodríguez S, John Kress W, Temeles EJ, Meléndez-Ackerman E (2011) Plant–pollinator interactions and floral convergence in two species of Heliconia from the Caribbean Islands. Oecologia 167:1075–1083. doi:10.1007/s00442-011-2043-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Meléndez-Ackerman E, Rojas-Sandoval J, Planas S (2008) Self-compatibility of microgametophytes in Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae) from St Lucia. Caribb J Sci 44:145–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Missagia CCC, Verçoza FC (2011) Fenologia reprodutiva, polinização e frutificação de Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg. (Heliconiaceae) em fragmento de Floresta Atlântica do município do Rio de Janeiro. Biotemas 24:13–23. doi:10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n3p13 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Missagia CCC, Verçoza FC (2014) Influência da disponibilidade de recurso floral no comportamento de forrageamento de Eupetomena macroura (Trochilidae). Atual Ornitol 180:4–6Google Scholar
  30. Missagia CCC, Verçoza FC (2015) Implicações do agrupamento de inflorescências para a taxa de visitação por beija-flores e a produção de frutos de Heliconia bihai (L.) L. (Heliconiaceae). Biotemas 28:181–186. doi:10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p181 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Missagia CCC, Verçoza FC, Alves MAS (2014) Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae) in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae) in the Atlantic forest. An Acad Bras Cienc 86:1693–1702. doi:10.1590/0001-3765201420130134 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Rocca A, Sazima M (2013) Quantity versus quality: identifying the most effective pollinators of the hummingbird-pollinated Vriesea rodigasiana (Bromeliaceae). Plant Syst Evolut 299:97–105. doi:10.1007/s00606-012-0706-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sazima I, Buzato S, Sazima M et al (1995) Ramphodon naevius. J fur Ornithol 136:195–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schuchmann KL, Bonan A (2013) Hummingbirds (Trochilidae). In: del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J et al (eds) Handbook of the birds of the world alive. Lynx Edicions, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  35. Silva CA, Ferreira DS, Koch AK, Araújo-Silva LE (2010) Variação na arquitetura floral e sucesso reprodutivo de duas espécies de Helicteres (Malvaceae), na região sudoeste de Mato Grosso. Acta Bot Bras 24:462–468. doi:10.1590/S0102-33062010000200017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stiles FG (1975) Ecology, flowering phenology, and hummingbird pollination of some Costa Rican Heliconia species. Ecology 56:285–301. doi:10.2307/1934961 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Switzer PV, Stamps JA, Mangel M (2001) When should a territory resident attack? Anim Behav 62:749–759. doi:10.1006/anbe.2001.1799 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Temeles EJ, Kress WJ (2010) Mate choice and mate competition by a tropical hummingbird at a floral resource. Proc R Soc B 277:1607–1613. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.2188 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Temeles EJ, Pan IL, Brennan J, Horwitt JN (2000) Evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism in a hummingbird. Science 289:441–443. doi:10.1126/science.289.5478.441 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Temeles EJ, Goldman RS, Kudla AU (2005) Foraging and territory economics of sexually dimorphic purple-throated caribs (Eulampis jugularis) on three Heliconia morphs. Auk 122:187–204. doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2005)122[0187:FATEOS]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Temeles EJ, Rah YJ, Andicoechea J et al (2013) Pollinator-mediated selection in a specialized hummingbird-Heliconia system in the Eastern Caribbean. J Evolut Biol 26:347–356. doi:10.1111/jeb.12053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Weller AA, Kirwan GM, Boesman P (2013) Violet-capped Woodnymph (Thalurania glaucopis). In: del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J et al (eds) Handbook of the birds of the world alive. Lynx Edicions, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  43. Wolf LL, Hainsworth FR (1991) Hummingbird foraging patterns: visits to clumps of Ipomopsis aggregata inflorescences. Anim Behav 41:803–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Botanical Society of Sao Paulo 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Caio C. C. Missagia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maria Alice S. Alves
    • 3
  1. 1.Programa de Pós-Graduação em EcologiaUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e EvoluçãoUniversidade do Estado do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de EcologiaInstituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara GomesRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations