Advertisement

Brazilian Journal of Botany

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 411–415 | Cite as

Spiral root hairs in Spiranthinae (Cranichideae: Orchidaceae)

  • Angelita Aparecida Bernal
  • Eric de Camargo Smidt
  • Cleusa BonaEmail author
Article

Abstract

(Spiral Root Hairs in Spiranthinae (Cranichideae: Orchidaceae) Root hairs are extensions of root epidermal cells, usually unicellular and unbranched. Root hairs studies usually focus on the relevant physiological and molecular aspects and have become a well-studied model of cellular differentiation and growth. In the Orchidaceae structures such as velamen, as well as exodermal and endodermal thickening, have been considered taxonomically valuable for categorizing different groups. While velamen has been greatly studied and discussed, root hairs are rarely mentioned in the literature or are merely characterized as simple root hairs. In the present study, we characterize morphologically spiral root hairs in a broad sample species of Spiranthinae. We analyzed roots from 23 species included in 12 genera from the subtribe Spiranthinae and Prescottia stachyodes (Sw.) Lindl. (Cranichidinae) as an external group, using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Spiral root hairs are a continuation of the velamen and are found among simple root hairs; they differ from the latter in the type of wall rupture displayed. Spiral root hairs occur frequently among the species we analyzed, in both epiphytic as well as terrestrial species. We believe these root hairs help increase the opening (facilitating the entrance of colonizers), improve fluid absorption, and increase adherence to the substrate. The presence of spiral root hairs may also carry taxonomic importance in studies with a broader sample of Orchidoideae.

Keywords

Root anatomy Type of root hairs Wall thickenings 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for funding this project (PNADB 998/2010) and providing financial support for the first author. We thank the Center for Electron Microscopy at UFPR for allowing us to use their equipment, and Jaques Klein for providing us some of the samples.

References

  1. Benzing DH, ott DW, Friedman WE (1982) Roots of Sobralia macrantha (Orchidaceae): structure and function of the velamen-exodermis complex. Am J Bot 69:608–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bukatsch F (1972) Bemerkungen zur doppelfärbung Astrablau safranin. Mikrokosmos 61:255Google Scholar
  3. Dressler RL (1990) The orchids, natural history and classification. Cambridge Harvard, University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  4. Dressler RL (1993) Phylogeny and classification of the orchid family. Dioscorides Press, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  5. Dycus AM, Knudson L (1957) The roles of the velamen of the aerial roots of orchids. Bot Gaz 119:78–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Evert RF (2006) Esau’s plant anatomy, 3rd edn. Wiley, New JerseyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fahn A (1990) Plant Anatomy, 4th edn. Pergamon Press, PergamonGoogle Scholar
  8. Figueroa C, Salazar GA, Zavaleta HA, Engleman EM (2008) Root character evolution and systematics in Cranichidinae, Prescottiinae and Spiranthinae (Orchidaceae, Cranichideae). Ann Bot 10:509–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Foster AS (1949) Practical plant anatomy. D. van Nostrand Company Inc., PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  10. Gahoonia TS, Nielsen NE, Joshi PA, Jahoor A (2001) A root hairless barley mutant for elucidating genetic of root hairs and phosphorus uptake. Plant Soil 235:211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Galway ME, Heckman JW Jr, Schiefelbein JW (1997) Growth and ultrastructure of Arabidopsis root hairs: the rhd3. mutation alters vacuole enlargement and tip growth. Planta 201:209–218CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gilroy S, Jones DL (2000) Through form to function: root hair development and nutrient uptake. Trends Plant Sci 5:56–60CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Gutterman Y, Witzium A, Evenari M (1967) Seed dispersal and germination in Blepharis persica (Burm.) Kuntze. Isr J Bot 16:213–234Google Scholar
  14. Ishida T, Kurata T, Okada K, Wada T (2008) A genetic regulatory network in the development of trichomes and root hairs. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:365–386CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Janczewski E (1885) Organisation dorsiventrale dans les raciness des orchidees-Annales des sciences naturalles. 1834–1937. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/pdf4/030689300137966. Accessed 2014 Sept 16
  16. Johansen DA (1940) Plant microtechnique. nMcGraw-Hill Book Company Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Kaiser E (1880) Verfahren zur Herstellung einer tadellosen glycerin-gelatine. Bot Zentralb 180:25–26Google Scholar
  18. Kippist R (1845) On the existence of spiral cells in the seeds of Acanthaceae. Trans Linn Soc Lond 19:65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kraus JE, Arduin M (1997) Manual básico de métodos em morfologia vegetal, 1st ed. EDUR, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  20. Leitgeb H (1865) Die luftwurzeln der orchideen. 1850–1918. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/pdf4/030689300137966. Accessed 2014 Sept 12
  21. Lersten NR, Curtis JD (1977) Preliminary report of outer wall helices in trichomes of cetain dicots. Can J Bot 55:128–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Muthukumar T, Eswaranpillai H, Karthikeyan A, Sathiyadash K, Jaison S, Priyadharsini P, Chongtham I, Muniappan V (2011) Morphology, anatomy and mycorrhizae in subterranean parts of Zeuxine gracilis (Orchidaceae). An de Biol 33:127–134Google Scholar
  23. Pitts RJ, Cernac A, Estelle M (1998) Auxin and ethylene promote root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. Plant J 16:553–560CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Porembski S, Barthlott W (1988) Velamen radicum micromorphology and classification of the Orchidaceae. Nord J Bot 8:117–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pridgeon AM (1982) Diagnostic anatomical characters in the Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae). Am J Bot 69:921–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pridgeon AM, Stern WL, Benzing DH (1983) Tilosomes in roots of Orchidaceae: morphology and systematic occurrence. Am J Bot 70:1365–1377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pridgeon AM, Crib PJ, Chase MW (1999) Genera Orchidacearum: general Introduction, Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae, 1st edn. University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  28. Shefferson RP, Kull T, Tali K (2008) Mycorrhizal interactions of orchids colonizing Estonian mine tailings hills. Am J Bot 95:156–164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Shi H, Zhu JK (2002) A pyridoxal kinase gene, is required for root hair development in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 129:585–593PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Sieberer BJ, Ketelaar T, Esseling JJ, Emons AMC (2005) Microtubules guide root hair tip growth. New Phytol 167:711–719CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Stern WL (2014) Anatomy of the Monocotyledons, vol. X, Orchidaceae. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stern WL, Carlsward BS (2006) Comparative vegetative anatomy and systematic of the Oncidinae (Maxillarieae, Orchidaceae). Bot J Linn Soc 152:91–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stern WL, Morris MW, Judd WS, Pridgeon AM, Dressler RL (1993) Comparative vegetative anatomy and systematic of Spiranthoideae (Orchidaceae). Bot J Linn Soc 113:161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yukawa T, Stern WL (2002) Comparative vegetative anatomy and systematics of Cymbidium (Cymbidieae: Orchidaceae). Bot J Linn Soc 138:383–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yukawa T, Ogura-Tsujita Y, Shefferson RP, Yokoyama J (2009) Mycorrhizal diversity in Apostasia (Orchidaceae) indicates the origin and evolution of orchid mycorrhiza. Am J Bot 96:1997–2009CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Botanical Society of Sao Paulo 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angelita Aparecida Bernal
    • 1
  • Eric de Camargo Smidt
    • 1
  • Cleusa Bona
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento de Botânica/Setor de Ciências BiológicasUniversidade Federal do Paraná - UFPRCuritibaBrazil

Personalised recommendations