Advertisement

European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 603–607 | Cite as

Maternal report underestimates the amount of dentifrice used by children during toothbrushing: a cross-sectional study

  • M. F. G. de Siqueira
  • E. T. de SousaEmail author
  • V. F. Alves
  • F. C. Sampaio
  • M. B. Diniz
Original Scientific Article

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated whether the report of mothers about the amount of dentifrice applied on a toothbrush could be a reliable method to estimate the inadvertent use of dentifrices.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected sample of 334 mothers of children enrolled in public day care centres of a city in the Brazilian northeast. Initially, the mothers chose the figure corresponding to the amount of dentifrice used during their children’s daily toothbrushing. Then, they simulated real-life conditions with the toothbrush routinely used to brush the children’s teeth. The amount of dentifrice on toothbrush was weighted using an analytical scale. Data were analysed by the Kruskal–Wallis followed by the Dunn test (α = 0.05).

Results

The weight of dentifrice on the toothbrush was high (> 0.3 g), mainly considering the categories ‘covered only’ and ‘completely covered’ that showed no statistical difference (p > 0.05). The proportion of agreement between the mothers’ reports and the weight of dentifrice on the toothbrush was 0.23 (CI 0.18–0.28).

Conclusion

The mothers’ report regarding the amount of dentifrice on the toothbrush by demonstrative figures was not a reliable method to estimate the inadvertent ingestion of fluoride from dentifrices.

Keywords

Fluoride intake Dental fluorosis Children 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We especially thank all preschoolers and their parents for their valuable participation in this study. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no potential conflict of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

References

  1. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Guideline on fluoride therapy. Ref Man. 2014;37:176–9.Google Scholar
  2. Creeth J, Bosma ML, Govier K. How much is a “pea-sized amount”? A study of dentifrice dosing by parents in three countries. Int Dent J. 2013;63:25–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. de Sousa ET, Alves VF, Maia FBM, Nobre-dos-Santos M, Forte FDS, Sampaio FC (2018) Influence of fluoridated groundwater and 1,100 ppm fluoride dentifrice on biomarkers of exposure to fluoride. Braz Dent J 29(5):475–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. do Nascimento HAR, Soares Ferreira JM, Granville-Garcia AF, de Brito Costa EMM, Almeida Cavalcante AL, Sampaio FC. Estimation of toothpaste fluoride intake in preschool children. Braz Dent J. 2013;24:142–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Franzman MR, Levy SM, Warren JJ, Broffitt B. Tooth-brushing and dentifrice use among children ages 6 to 60 months. Pediatr Dent. 2004;26:87–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Huebner CE, Thomas A, Scott J, Lin J-Y. Parents’ interpretation of instructions to control the dose of fluoridated toothpaste used with young children. Pediatr Dent. 2013;35:262–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Lwanga S, Lemeshow S. Sample size determination in health studies: a practical manual. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1991.Google Scholar
  8. Marinho VC, Higgins JP, Logan S, Sheiham A. Topical fluoride (toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels or varnishes) for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;2003:CD002782.Google Scholar
  9. Martins CC, Oliveira MJ, Pordeus IA, Cury JA, Paiva SM. Association between socioeconomic factors and the choice of dentifrice and fluoride intake by children. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8:4284–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Moimaz SAS, Saliba O, Marques LB, Garbin CAS, Saliba NA. Dental fluorosis and its influence on children’s life. Braz Oral Res. 2015;29:1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Oliveira MJL, Paiva SM, Martins LHPM, Ramos-Jorge ML, Lima YBO, Cury JA. Fluoride intake by children at risk for the development of dental fluorosis: comparison of regular dentifrices and flavoured dentifrices for children. Caries Res. 2007;41:460–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Oliveira MJL, Martins CC, Paiva SM, Tenuta L, Cury JA. Estimated fluoride doses from toothpastes should be based on total soluble fluoride. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:5726–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Santos AP, Nadanovsky P, Oliveira BH. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of fluoride toothpastes on the prevention of dental caries in the primary dentition of preschool children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2013;41:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wong MCM, Clarkson J, Glenny AM, Lo ECM, Marinho VCC, Tsang BWK, Walsh T, Worthington HV. Cochrane reviews on the benefits/risks of fluoride toothpastes. J Dent Res. 2011;90:573–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Wright JT, Hanson N, Ristic H, Whall CW, Estrich CG, Zentz RR. Fluoride toothpaste efficacy and safety in children younger than 6 years: a systematic review. J Am Dent Assoc. 2014;145:182–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Zohoori FV, Buzalaf MAR, Cardoso CAB, Olympio KPK, Levy FM, Grizzo LT, Mangueira DF, Sampaio FC, Maguire A. Total fluoride intake and excretion in children up to 4 years of age living in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas. Eur J Oral Sci. 2013;121:457–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Zohoori FV, Whaley G, Moynihan PJ, Maguire A. Fluoride intake of infants living in non-fluoridated and fluoridated areas. Br Dent J. 2014;216:E3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DentistryUniversity Center of João PessoaJoão PessoaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Piracicaba Dental SchoolCampinas UniversityPiracicabaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Public Health and Clinic DentistryFederal University of ParaibaJoão PessoaBrazil
  4. 4.Department of DentistryCruzeiro do Sul UniversitySão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations