A game of colours, changing emotions in children: a pilot study

  • S. KarmakarEmail author
  • S. Mathur
  • V. Sachdev
Original Scientific Article



To analyse the effect of colours on children's emotions and variations in anxiety levels using six different coloured attires, white, pink, yellow, green, purple and black.


Seventy-two children aged between 5–9 years old who had come for restorative treatment in the Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, I.T.S. Dental College, Muradnagar, Ghaziabad, India were chosen and divided according to Corah’s dental anxiety scale into 4 levels of anxiety. Eighteen children from each level were then assigned six different colours (3 children for each colour). A two factor study was conducted to determine the influence of colours, anxiety levels or facial expressions on oxygen saturation levels and pulse rate of the children. Data was analysed using SPSS 16.0 for ANOVA.


There was significant difference between colours influencing oxygen saturation levels (p = 0.001) and pulse rate (p = 0.038). A post-hoc test indicated that black colour was significantly different from most of the other colours. No interaction effect was found to exist between colours and facial expression.


Data suggested that yellow, pink and purple colours may have reduced anxiety among children whereas black colour could have enhanced it.


Colour Emotions Anxiety level Pulse rate Oxygen saturation level Children 



Special Thanks to Dr (Mrs) Gopa Karmakar and Dr (Mrs) Alka Sabharwal for the statistical analysis of the study and to Dr Shrey Nandi for his valuable suggestions and encouragement.


There is no funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Dr. Smriti Karmakar declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author Dr. Shivani Mathur declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author Dr. Vinod Sachdev declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

Research involves human participants.

Informed consent

Informed consent was taken from all the participants.


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Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pedodontics and Preventive DentistryI.T.S-CDSRGhaziabadIndia

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