Oral habits and malocclusion in children resident in Ile-Ife Nigeria
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To determine the: prevalence of oral habits in children aged 1–12 years in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State Nigeria; association between oral habits and malocclusion in children aged 6–12 years; differences in orthodontic treatment needs of children with and without oral habits and the effect of digit sucking severity on occlusal profile.
This was a cross-sectional study that collected data through a household survey. Information collected included the age, gender, and oral habits of study participants. Intra-oral examination was conducted. The Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) was used to assess orthodontic treatment needs for 6–12-year-old participants. Independent sample t test was used to compare mean DAI scores of participants with and without oral habits. A digit sucking severity index was developed and digit sucking severity was determined.
One hundred and thirty (13.1%) study participants had 142 oral habits. The most common oral habit was digit sucking. The most common malocclusion traits were spacing (29.9%), crowding (21.7%) and increased overjet (16.4%). DAI scores were significantly higher in participants with tongue thrusting (p < 0.001) and bruxism (p = 0.01) habits compared with participants without the habits. Among the 67 participants with oral habits, 54 (80.6%) had no need for treatment, 9 (13.4%) needed elective treatment and treatment was mandatory for 4 (6.0%) participants.
Digit sucking was the most frequently practiced oral habit in the study population. Tongue thrusting and bruxism were significantly associated with greater severity of malocclusion in children 6–12 years old when compared with peers who had no habits. Most children with oral habits had no need for treatment.
KeywordsOral habits Digit sucking Digit sucking severity index Malocclusion Orthodontic treatment need Children
We appreciate all the children, parents and field workers who participated in the study.
The Investigators did not receive any funding from any body or organization to conduct this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The Authors hereby declare that we have no conflicts of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Ethics and Research Committee of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex Ile-Ife (ERC/2013/07/14). Approval for conduct of the study was obtained from the Local Government Authority prior to commencement of the study. The study has been conducted by the highest principles of human subject welfare, and in full compliance with the study protocol. Efforts were made to minimize risks to participants and discomfort during clinical examinations. All study procedures were conducted in private, and every effort was made to protect participant privacy and confidentiality. Names of participants were not written on study questionnaire, and were not used in connection with any of the information given, serial numbers were used. All study-related information were stored securely on personal computers with password.
Children participated in this study if both the parent and child agreed to participate. Written informed consent was obtained from the parent of each study participant prior to enrollment after duly explaining the objectives of the study, risk and benefits, voluntary nature of study participation and freedom to withdraw from the study at any time. All children aged 8–12 years also provided written assent in addition to the written consent by parents. There was no punishment involved if participants wished to withdraw from the study.
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