Advertisement

European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 187–193 | Cite as

Use of caries prevention tools and associated caries risk in a suburban population of children in Nigeria

  • M. O. FolayanEmail author
  • K. A. Kolawole
  • N. M. Chukwumah
  • Titus Oyedele
  • H. O. Agbaje
  • N. Onyejaka
  • E. O. Oziegbe
  • O. V. Oshomoji
Original Scientific Article

Abstract

Aims

To determine the association between use of recommended oral self-care (ROSC) caries prevention tools and presence of dental caries in children resident in suburban Nigeria.

Methodology

Secondary analysis was conducted for a dataset generated for 1–12 years old children recruited through a household survey. Information on use of ROSC caries prevention tools (brushing more than once a day, use of fluoridated toothpaste always, and eating sugary snacks between main meals less than once a day), use of oral health adjuncts (dental floss, mouth rinses, other tooth cleansing agents) and presence of caries were extracted. The odds of having caries when ROSC caries prevention tools were used singly or in combination, were determined using multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age and sex.

Results

The single or combined use of ROSC caries prevention tools had no statistically significant association with presence of caries. Brushing more than once a day reduced the odds of having caries while consumption of sugar between meals once a day or more increased the odds of having caries after adjusting for age and gender. The use of two ROSC caries prevention tools reduced the risk for caries (AOR 0.28; 95 % CI 0.05–1.53) when adjusted for age. The converse was observed when adjusted for gender (AOR 1.15; 95 % CI 0.38–3.45). The largest effect size was observed when sugary snacks were taken once a day or more between meals after adjusting for age (AOR 5.74; 95 % CI 0.34–96.11).

Conclusion

The use of a combination of fluoridated toothpaste and twice-daily tooth brushing had the largest effect on reducing the chance for caries in children resident in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Keywords

Caries Prevention Risk Nigeria Fluoridated toothpaste Tooth brushing Effectiveness 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the efforts of the fieldworkers who were engaged with data collection for this study, and the children and their parents who gave their time and consent for study participation.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interest.

References

  1. Adachi-Mejia AM, Longacre MR, Skatrud-Mickelson M, et al. Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools. Public Health. 2013;127(5):485–91.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Adekoya-Sofowora C, Nasir WO, Taiwo M, Adesina AO. Caries experience in the primary dentition of nursery school children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Afr J Oral Health. 2006a; 2(1–2):19–25.Google Scholar
  3. Adekoya-Sofowora CA, Nasir WO, Oginni AO, Taiwo M. Dental caries in 12-year old suburban Nigerian school children. Afr Health Sci. 2006b;6:145–50.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Akpata ES. Oral health in Nigeria. Int Dent J. 2004;54(6 Suppl 1):361–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson CA, Curzon ME, Van Loveren C, et al. Sucrose and dental caries: a review of the evidence. Obes Rev. 2009;10(Suppl 1):41–54. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00564.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernabé E, Vehkalahti MM, Sheiham A, Lundqvist A, Suominen AL. The shape of the dose-response relationship between sugars and caries in adults. J Dent Res. 2016;95(2)167–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bratthall D, Hansel-Petersson G, Sundberg H. Reasons for the caries decline: What experts believe? Eur J Oral Sci. 1996;104:416–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cury JA, Tenuta LMA. Evidence based recommendation on toothpaste use. Braz Oral Res (São Paulo). 2014;28:1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Esan A, Folayan MO, Egbetade G, Oyedele T. Effect of a school-based oral health education programme on use of recommended oral self-care for reducing the risk for caries by children in Nigeria. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2015;25(4):282–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Folayan MO, Onyejeka N, Chukwumah NM, et al. Appraisal of the national response to the caries epidemic in children in Nigeria. BMC Oral Health. 2014a;14:76.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Folayan MO, Kolawole KA, Oyedele T, et al. Association between knowledge of caries preventive practices, preventive oral health habits of parents and children and caries experience in children resident in a sub-urban Nigeria. BMC Oral Health. 2014b;14:156.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Folayan MO, Khami MR, Popoola OO, et al. Preventive oral health practices of school pupils in Southern Nigeria. BMC Oral Health. 2014c;14:83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Folayan MO, Adeniyi AA, Chukwumah N, et al. Programme guidelines for promoting good oral health for children in Nigeria: a position paper. BMC Oral Health. 2014d;14:128.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Folayan MO, Owotade FJ, Ozeigbe E, et al. Effect of birth rank on the caries experience of children from a suburban population in Nigeria. J Dent Oral Hyg. 2010;2(3):27–30.Google Scholar
  15. Folayan MO, Sofola OO, Oginni AB. Caries incidence in a cohort of primary school students in Lagos State, Nigeria followed up over a 3 years period. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2012a;13:312–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Folayan MO, Sowole CA, Kola-Jebutu A, et al. Risk factors for rampant caries in children from Southwestern Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2012b;41:249–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Folayan MO, Sowole A, Kola-Jebutu A. Risk factors for caries in Nigerian children. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2008;32:171–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Folayan MO, Kolawole KA, Oziegbe EO, et al. Prevalence, and early childhood caries risk indicators in preschool children in suburban Nigeria. BMC Oral Health. 2015;15:72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Frazier PJ. Fluoridation: a review of social research. J Public Health Dent. 1980;40:214–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Gahlinger PM, Abramson JH. Computer programmes for epidemiologists. PEPI Version 3.00. Llanidloes Wales: Brixton Books; 1999.Google Scholar
  21. GRADE Working Group. Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ. 2004;328(7454):1490.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Gupta P, Gupta N, Pawar AP, Birajdar SS, Natt AS, Singh HP. Role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries: a review. ISRN Dent. 2013;2013:519421.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Ismail AI, Tanzer JM, Dingle JL. Current trends of sugar consumption in developing societies. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1997;25:438–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Iyun OI, Denloye OO, Bankole OO, Popoola BO. Prevalence and pattern of early childhood caries in Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2014;43(3):239–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kolawole KA, Folayan MO, Agbaje HO, et al. Digit sucking habit and association with dental caries and oral hygiene status of children aged 6 months to 12 years in semi-urban Nigeria. PLoS One 2016;11(2):e0148322.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Krapp K. Dental indices. Encyclopedia of nursing & allied health. Ed. vol 2. Gale Cengage. eNotes.com. http://www.enotes.com/dental-indices-reference/.2002. Accessed 2nd Jan 2012.
  27. Marinho VC, Higgins JP, Sheiham A, Logan S. Fluoride toothpastes for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(1):CD002278. doi: 10.1002/14651858CD002278.
  28. Moynihan PJ, Kelly SA. Effect on caries of restricting sugars intake: systematic review to inform WHO guidelines. J Dent Res. 2014;93(1):8–18.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Moynihan P, Petersen PE. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of dental diseases. Public Health Nutr. 2004;7:201–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement. Diagnosis and management of dental caries throughout life. J Dent Educ. 2001;65:1162–8.Google Scholar
  31. Oziegbe EO, Esan TA. Prevalence and clinical consequences of untreated dental caries using PUFA index in suburban Nigerian school children. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2013;14(4):227–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Peres MA, Sheiham A, Liu P, et al. Sugar consumption and changes in dental caries from childhood to adolescence. J Dent Res. 2016;95(4):388–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Rolla G, Øgaard B, Cruz Rde A. Clinical effect and mechanism of cariostatic action of fluoride containing toothpaste: a review. Int Dent J. 1991;41:171–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Sofola OO, Folayan MO, Oginni AB. Changes in the prevalence of dental caries in primary school children in Lagos State, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2014;17(2):127–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Sofola OO, Jeboda SO, Shaba OP. Dental caries status of primary school children aged 4–16 years in southwest Nigeria. Odontostomatol Trop. 2004;27(108):19–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Taber DR, Chriqui JF, Powell LM, Chaloupka FJ. Banning all sugar-sweetened beverages in middle schools: reduction of in-school access and purchasing but not overall consumption. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166(3):256–62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Touger-decker R, van Loveren C. Sugars and dental caries. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:881S–92S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. UNICEF, Nigeria. The children education. 2005. Retrieved 6th January 2016 from: http://www.unicef.org/nigeria/children_1937.html. Accessed 20th Jan 2016.
  39. Wong MCM, Clarkson J, Glenny A-M, et al. Cochrane reviews on the benefits/risks of fluoride toothpastes. J Dent Res. 2011;90:573–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Woodward M, Walker ARP. Sugar consumption and dental caries: evidence from 90 countries. Br Dent J. 1994;176:297–302.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. World Health Organisation. Oral Health Surveys: basic methods. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 1997.Google Scholar
  42. The World Health Organisation. The World oral health report 2003. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. O. Folayan
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • K. A. Kolawole
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • N. M. Chukwumah
    • 2
    • 3
  • Titus Oyedele
    • 2
    • 3
  • H. O. Agbaje
    • 2
    • 3
  • N. Onyejaka
    • 2
    • 3
  • E. O. Oziegbe
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • O. V. Oshomoji
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Child Dental HealthObafemi Awolowo UniversityIle-IfeNigeria
  2. 2.Oral Habit Study GroupIle-IfeNigeria
  3. 3.Department of Child Dental HealthObafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals ComplexIle-IfeNigeria

Personalised recommendations