European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 467–476 | Cite as

Unilateral and bilateral dental transpositions in the maxilla—dental and skeletal findings in 63 individuals

  • J. C. Danielsen
  • K. Karimian
  • R. Ciarlantini
  • B. Melsen
  • I. KjærEmail author
Original Scientific Article



This was to elucidate dental and skeletal findings in individuals with unilateral and bilateral maxillary dental transpositions.

Material and methods

The sample comprised of radiographic materials from 63 individuals with maxillary dental transpositions from the Departments of Odontology at the Universities of Copenhagen and Aarhus and by the Danish municipal orthodontic service. The cases were divided into three groups: unilateral transposition of the canine and first premolar (Type 1U), bilateral transposition of canine and first premolar (Type 1B), and unilateral transposition of canine and lateral incisor (Type 2). The dentitions were analysed regarding agenesis and dental morphological anomalies on panoramic radiographs, and craniofacial aspects were cephalometrically analysed on profile images The results were statistically evaluated.


All groups demonstrated increased occurrences of agenesis (Type 1U and Type 1B: 31 agenesis in 15 patients; and Type 2 three agenesis in three patients). Taurodontic root morphology was most dominant in Type 1U. Peg-shaped lateral incisors showed an increased occurrence, though not in Type 1U. Skeletally, Type 1B and Type 1U demonstrated maxillary retrognathia (more pronounced in Type 1B). Type 2 showed a significant posterior inclination of the maxilla.


Transpositions of maxillary canines involve dental and skeletal deviations. Dental deviations were predominantly taurodontic root morphology and agenesis. Regarding skeletal deviations, bilateral transpositions of the canines and the first premolars are associated with skeletal changes. Unilateral transpositions are possibly a localised deviation with minor or no skeletal involvements. The results indicate a possible difference in the aetiologies of unilateral and bilateral transpositions.


Agenesis Craniofacial radiography Taurodontia Transposition 



Many sincere thanks to all those orthodontists who contributed with materials for this study. Furthermore, thanks are also due to “Union for Specialized Dentists in Orthodontics” (FSO), for support and establishing contact.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.


  1. Allen WA. Bilateral transposition of teeth in two brothers. Br Dent J. 1967;123:439–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amin F. Prevalence of peg laterals and small size lateral incisors in orthodontic patients-a study. Pak Oral Dent J. 2011;31:88–91.Google Scholar
  3. Baccetti T. A controlled study of associated dental anomalies. Angle Orthod. 1998;68:267–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Björk A. The relationship of the jaws to the cranium. In: Lundström A, editor. Introduction to orthodontics. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc.; 1960. CH 7. p. 104–40.Google Scholar
  5. Celikoglu M, Miloglu O, Oztek O. Investigation of tooth transposition in a non-syndromic Turkish anatolian population: characteristic features and associated dental anomalies. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2010;15:e716–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Celikoglu M, Kamak H, Yildirim H, Ceylan I. Investigation of the maxillary lateral incisor agenesis and associated dental anomalies in an orthodontic patient population. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2012;17:e1068–73.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chattopadhyay A, Srinivas K. Transposition of teeth and genetic etiology. Angle Orthod. 1996;66:147–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ely NJ, Sherriff M, Cobourne MT. Dental transposition as a disorder of genetic origin. Eur J Orthod. 2006;28:145–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Jacoby H. The etiology of maxillary canine impactions. Am J Orthod. 1983;84:125–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Kjaer I. Morphological characteristics of dentitions develeloping excessive root resorption during orthodontic treatment. Eur J Orthod. 1995;17:25–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Lagana G, Lombardi CC, Franchi L, Cozza P. Tooth agenesis: dento-skeletal characteristics in subjects with orthodontic treatment need. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2011;12:17–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Larsen J, Sørensen HB, Artmann L, Christensen IJ, Kjaer I. Saggital, vertical and transversal dimensions of the maxillary complex in patients with ectopic maxillary canines. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2010;13:34–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Newman GV. Transposition: orthodontic treatment. J Am Dent Assoc. 1977;94:544–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Papadopoulos MA, Chatzoudi M, Kaklamanos EG. Prevalence of tooth transposition. A meta-analysis. Angle Orthod. 2010;80:275–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Payne GS. Bilateral transposition of maxillary canines and premolars. Report of two cases. Am J Orthod. 1969;56:45–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Peck S, Peck L. Classification of maxillary tooth transpositions. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1995;107:505–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Peck L, Peck S, Attia Y. Maxillary canine-first premolar transposition, associated dental anomalies and genetic basis. Angle Orthod. 1993;63:99–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Peck S, Peck L, Hirsh G. Mandibular lateral incisor-canine transposition in monozygotic twins. ASDC J Dent Child. 1997;64:409–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Peck S, Peck L, Kataja M. Mandibular lateral incisor-canine transposition, concomitant dental anomalies, and genetic control. Angle Orthod. 1998;68:455–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Plunkett DJ, Dysart PS, Kardos TB, Herbison GP. A study of transposed canines in a sample of orthodontic patients. Br J Orthod. 1998;25:203–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Rölling S, Poulsen S. Agenesis of permanent teeth in 8138 Danish schoolchildren: prevalence and intra-oral distribution according to gender. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2009;19:172–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Shapira J, Chaushu S, Becker A. Prevalence of tooth transposition, third molar agenesis, and maxillary canine impaction in individuals with Down syndrome. Angle Orthod. 2000;70:290–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Shapira Y, Kuftinec MM. Maxillary tooth transpositions: characteristic features and accompanying dental anomalies. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2001;119:127–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Yilmaz HH, Turkkahraman H, Sayin MO. Prevalence of tooth transpositions and associated dental anomalies in a Turkish population. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2005;34:32–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. Danielsen
    • 1
  • K. Karimian
    • 1
  • R. Ciarlantini
    • 2
  • B. Melsen
    • 2
  • I. Kjær
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Orthodontic Section, Department of Odontology, Faculty of Health and Medical SciencesUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Section of Orthodontics, Department of Odontology, School of DentistryAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark

Personalised recommendations