European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 265–269 | Cite as

The prevalence of incisor hypomineralisation and its relationship with the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralisation

  • R. BalmerEmail author
  • K. J. Toumba
  • T. Munyombwe
  • J. Godson
  • M. S. Duggal
Original Scientific Article



To establish the prevalence of incisor hypomineralisation (IH) in a cohort of 12-year-old children in Northern England and to relate the prevalence to gender, socioeconomic status, and the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH).


The study population comprised 12-year-old children participating in the 2008–2009 National Dental Epidemiological Programme in five regions in Northern England. Participating dentists were trained and calibrated in the use of the modified Developmental Defects of Enamel Index. Children were examined at school under direct vision with the aid of a dental mirror. First permanent molars and incisors were recorded for the presence and type of enamel defects greater than 2 mm. A diagnosis of MIH was ascribed to any child with a demarcated defect in any first permanent molar. A diagnosis of IH was ascribed to any child with a demarcated defect in an incisor but with molar sparing.


3,233 children were examined. The prevalence of IH was 11.0 % (95 % CI 11.0–12.2 %). There was a strong positive correlation between the prevalence of MIH and IH in different regions which reached significance (r = 0.9, p = 0.037) according to Spearman’s rho test of correlation. There was a similar pattern of prevalence in the different socioeconomic quintiles although this correlation did not reach significance. The most common teeth affected in IH were the maxillary central incisors, followed by the maxillary lateral incisors and followed by the mandibular incisors. There was no difference in the prevalence of IH by gender.


The prevalence of IH was 11.0 %. The variation of prevalence between regions and socioeconomic groups and the distribution of lesions in the teeth were very similar to observations seen in MIH children from the same cohort.


Molar incisor hypomineralisation MIH Incisor hypomineralisation IH Developmental enamel defects 


Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Balmer
    • 1
    Email author
  • K. J. Toumba
    • 1
  • T. Munyombwe
    • 2
  • J. Godson
    • 3
  • M. S. Duggal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Child Dental HealthLeeds Dental InstituteLeedsUK
  2. 2.University of LeedsLeedsUK
  3. 3.Public Health EnglandLondonUK

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