Advertisement

European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 269–274 | Cite as

Electromyographic evaluation of masticatory muscles at rest and maximal intercuspal positions of the mandible in children with sleep bruxism

  • B. de L. Lucas
  • T. de S. Barbosa
  • L. J. Pereira
  • M. B. D. Gavião
  • P. M. CasteloEmail author
Original Scientific Article

Abstract

In adults, sleep bruxism (SB) may be related to reports of pain or fatigue in the muscles of mastication, resulting from multiple muscle contractions that occur during the night. In children, little is known about the consequences of this parafunction.

Purpose

The objective was to compare the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the masseter and anterior portion of the temporalis muscles in children with and without SB; acquisitions were made at rest (RE) and in maximal intercuspal (MI) positions of the mandible.

Methods

Twenty children with signs and symptoms of SB (mean age 7.20 years ± 0.52) and 20 controls without signs or symptoms of SB (mean age 7.40 years ± 0.50) were selected. The controls were matched to the type of occlusal morphology evaluated according to Björk et al. (Acta Odontol Scand 22:27–40, 1964). Muscle activity was measured with the mandible at RE, MI and maximal clenching with cotton roll (MC), on the left and right sides. Data from the RE and MI (mV) were normalized by calculating them as % MC. The results were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Shapiro–Wilk test, Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests.

Results

The subjects’ age did not differ significantly between groups. EMG of temporalis muscle at RE differed between the right and left sides in both groups. There was no significant difference in EMG of masseter and temporalis muscles between groups.

Conclusion

Children with SB showed no significant difference in EMG of masticatory muscles at RE and in MI positions of the mandible when compared with the control group.

Keywords

Bruxism Sleep Masticatory muscles Children 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was carried out under grants from the State of São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP, SP, Brazil, n. 2006/06338-0 and 2007/05760-2).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Ahlberg K, Ahlberg J, Könönen M, et al. Perceived orofacial pain and its associations with reported bruxism and insomnia symptoms in media personnel with or without irregular shift work. Acta Odontol Scand. 2005;63:213–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Academy of Sleep Medicine: international classification of sleep disorders Westchester, IL. American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2. 2005.Google Scholar
  3. Amorim CF, Giannasi LC, Ferreira LM, et al. Behavior analysis of electromyographic activity of the masseter muscle in sleep bruxers. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2010;14(3):234–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrade AS, Gavião MB, De Rossi M, Gameiro GH. Electromyographic activity and thickness of masticatory muscles in children with unilateral posterior crossbite. Clin Anat. 2009;22:200–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Areso MP, Giralt MT, Sainz B, et al. Occlusal disharmonies modulate central catecholaminergic activity in the rat. J Dent Res. 1999;78:1204–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bader G, Lavigne G. Sleep bruxism: an overview of an oromandibular sleep movement disorder. Review article. Sleep Med Rev. 2000;4:27–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Behr M, Hahnel S, Faltermeier A, et al. The two main theories on dental bruxism. Ann Anat. 2011;194(2):216–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Björk A, Krebs A, Solow B. A method for epidemiological registration of malocclusion. Acta Odontol Scand. 1964;22:27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bodéré C, Téa SH, Giroux-Metges MA, Woda A. Activity of masticatory muscles in subjects with different orofacial pain conditions. Pain. 2005;116:33–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carra MC, Huynh N, Morton P, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of sleep bruxism and wake-time tooth clenching in a 7- to 17-yr-old population. Eur J Oral Sci. 2011;119(5):386–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carlsson GE, Egermark I, Magnusson T. Predictors of bruxism, other oral parafunctions, and tooth wear over a 20-year follow-up period. J Orofac Pain. 2003;17:50–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Castelo PM, Gavião MB, Pereira LJ, Bonjardim LR. Relationship between oral parafunctional/nutritive sucking habits and temporomandibular joint dysfunction in primary dentition. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2005;15:29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Castelo PM, Barbosa TS, Gavião MB. Quality of life evaluation of children with sleep bruxism. BMC Oral Health. 2010;10:16.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ciavarella D, Monsurrò A, Padricelli G, et al. Unilateral posterior crossbite in adolescents: surface electromyographic evaluation. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2012;13(1):25–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen J. A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educ Psychol Meas. 1960;20:37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Corvo G, Tartaro G, Giudice A, Diomajuta A. Distribution of craniomandibular disorders, occlusal factors and oral parafunctions in a paediatric population. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2003;4(2):84–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. De Rossi M, De Rossi A, Hallak JE, Vitti M, Regalo SC. Electromyographic evaluation in children having rapid maxillary expansion. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;136:355–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Farella M, Soneda K, Vilmann A, Thomsen CE, Bakke M. Jaw muscle soreness after tooth-clenching depends on force level. J Dent Res. 2010;89(7):717–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ferini-Strambi L, Pozzi P, Manconi M, Zucconi M, Oldani A. Bruxism and nocturnal groaning. Arch Ital Biol. 2011;149(4):466–77.Google Scholar
  20. Graven-Nielsen T, Lund H, Arendt-Nielsen L, Danneskiold B, Bliddal H. Inhibition of maximal voluntary contraction force by experimental muscle pain; a centrally mediated mechanism. Muscle Nerve. 2002;26:708–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jardini RS, Ruiz LS, Moysés MA. Electromyographic analysis of the masseter and buccinator muscles with the pro-fono facial exerciser use in bruxers. Cranio. 2006;24(1):29–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Klasser GD, Greene CS, Lavigne GJ. Oral appliances and the management of sleep bruxism in adults: a century of clinical applications and search for mechanisms. Int J Prosthodont. 2010;23(5):453–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kobayashi FY, Furlan NF, Barbosa TS, Castelo PM, Gavião MB. Evaluation of masticatory performance and bite force in children with sleep bruxism. J Oral Rehabil. 2012;39(10):776–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Koyano K, Tsuliyama Y, Ichiki R, Kuwata T. Assessment of bruxism in the clinic. J Oral Rehabil. 2008;35:495–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lavigne GJ, Huynh N, Kato T, et al. Genesis of sleep bruxism: motor and autonomic cardiac interactions. Arch Oral Biol. 2007;52:381–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lavigne GJ, Khoury S, Abe S, Yamaguchi T, Raphael K. Bruxism physiology and pathology: an overview for clinicians. J Oral Rehabil. 2008;35(7):476–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li XL, Lin XF, Teng W, Li SH. The characteristics of masticatory muscle activity in bruxers. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008;26:640–3 (Chinese).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lobbezoo F, Naeije M. Bruxism is mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally. J Oral Rehabil. 2001;28:1085–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lobbezoo F, Rompre PH, Soucy JP, et al. Lack of associations between occlusal and cephalometric measures, side imbalance in striatal D2 receptor binding, and sleep-related oromotor activities. J Orofac Pain. 2001;15:64–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Major M, Rompré PH, Guitard F, et al. A controlled daytime challenge of motor performance and vigilance in sleep bruxers. J Dent Res. 1999;78:1754–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Marklund S, Wänman A. Incidence and prevalence of myofascial pain in the jaw-face region. A one-year prospective study on dental students. Acta Odontol Scand. 2008;66(2):113–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pizolato RA, Gaviao MBD, Berretin-Feliz G, Sampaio ACM, Trindade-Júnior AS. Maximal bite force in young adults with temporomandibular disorders and bruxism. Braz Oral Res. 2007;21:278–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rodrigues-Bigaton D, Berto R, Oliveira AS, Bérzin F. Does masticatory muscle hyperactivity occur in individuals presenting temporomandibular disorders? Braz J Oral Sci. 2008;7(24):1497–501.Google Scholar
  34. Serra-Negra JM, Paiva SM, Seabra AP, et al. Prevalence of sleep bruxism in a group of Brazilian schoolchildren. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2010;11(4):192–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Silness J, Johannessen G, Roynstrand T. Longitudinal relationship between incisal occlusion and incisal dental wear. Acta Odontol Scand. 1993;51:15–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Widmalm SF, Lee YS, McKay DC. Clinical use of qualitative electromyography in the evaluation of jaw muscle function: a practitioner’s guide. Cranio. 2007;25:63–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. de L. Lucas
    • 1
  • T. de S. Barbosa
    • 2
  • L. J. Pereira
    • 3
  • M. B. D. Gavião
    • 2
  • P. M. Castelo
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Physiology, Piracicaba Dental SchoolUniversity of Campinas (UNICAMP)PiracicabaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Piracicaba Dental SchoolUniversity of Campinas (UNICAMP)PiracicabaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Physiology and PharmacologyFederal University of Lavras (UFLA)LavrasBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Biological SciencesFederal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Campus DiademaDiademaBrazil

Personalised recommendations