European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 237–243 | Cite as

The protective effect of SnF2 containing toothpastes and solution on enamel surfaces subjected to erosion and abrasion in situ

  • L. H. HoveEmail author
  • K. R. Stenhagen
  • B. Holme
  • A. B. Tveit
Original Article



Stannous fluoride solutions have shown promising protective effect against erosion/abrasion, but the effect of SnF2 toothpastes is uncertain.


The aim of the study was to test the inhibiting effect of two SnF2 toothpastes and a SnF2 solution against erosive/abrasive wear in a single-blind, randomised in situ study, using a white light interferometer.


Sixteen human molars were each divided into four specimens, mounted on mouth appliances and worn by 8 volunteers for 9 days. Specimens were brushed with toothpaste twice each day for 30 s either with fluoride-free toothpaste or toothpastes including SnF2. Toothpaste was left on the surface for 90 additional seconds. Group 1, fluoride-free toothpaste; Group 2, toothpaste A (0.4 % SnF2, Solidox); Group 3, toothpaste B (0.454 % SnF2, Oral-B®); Group 4, brushed with fluoride-free toothpaste (30 s) and treated for 2 min with a 0.4 % SnF2 solution (1,000 ppm F). To mimic gastric reflux/vomit, specimens were etched for 2 min twice a day (0.01 M HCl). Procedures were performed extra-orally.


The mean enamel wear (in μm) for the control specimens was: −29.2 ± SD 10.5; for group 2 −14.5 SD ± 9.3; for group 3 −33.3 SD ± 7.4, and for group 4 +0.4 SD ± 1.3. The specimens treated with SnF2 solution and toothpaste A showed significantly lower enamel wear than the control group. Toothpaste B gave no significant reduction in enamel wear.


The SnF2 solution fully protected the enamel surface against erosive and abrasive challenges. The SnF2 toothpaste A (Solidox) showed less, but significant protection of the enamel, while no statistically significant protection was demonstrated by SnF2 toothpaste B (Oral-B® Pro-Expert).


Dental erosion In situ Toothpaste SnF2 



The study was funded by Grants from the University of Oslo and a small contribution from Lilleborg AS. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.


  1. Attin T, Buchalla W, Gollner M, Hellwig E. Use of variable remineralization periods to improve the abrasion resistance of previously eroded enamel. Caries Res. 2000;34:48–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Babcock FD, King JC, Jordan TH. The reaction of stannous fluoride and hydroxyapatite. J Dent Res. 1978;57:933–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barkvoll P, Rølla G, Lagerløf F. Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on the deposition of alkali-soluble fluoride on enamel in vitro. Caries Res. 1988;22:139–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barlow AP, Sufi F, Mason SC. Evaluation of different fluoridated dentifrice formulations using an in situ erosion remineralization model. J Clin Dent. 2009;20:192–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Christoffersen J, Christoffersen MR, Kibalczyc W, Perdok WG. Kinetics of dissolution and growth of calcium fluoride and effects of phosphate. Acta Odontol Scand. 1988;46:325–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Davis WB, Winter PJ. The effect of abrasion on enamel and dentine and exposure to dietary acid. Br Dent J. 1980;148:253–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ellingsen JE, Rølla G. Treatment of dentin with stannous fluoride—SEM and electron microprobe study. Scand J Dent Res. 1987;95:281–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Faller RV, Eversole SL, Tzeghai GE. Enamel protection: a comparison of marketed dentifrice performance against dental erosion. Am J Dent. 2011;24:205–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ganss C, Lussi A, Grunau O, Klimek J, Schlueter N. Conventional and anti-erosion fluoride toothpastes: effect on enamel erosion and erosion–abrasion. Caries Res. 2011;45:581–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ganss C, Neutard L, von Hinckeldey J, Klimek J, Schlueter N. Efficacy of a tin/fluoride rinse: a randomized in situ trial on erosion. J Dent Res. 2010;89:1214–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ganss C, Schlueter N, Friedrich D, Klimek J. Efficacy of waiting periods and topical fluoride treatment on toothbrush abrasion of eroded enamel in situ. Caries Res. 2007;41:146–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ganss C, Schlueter N, Hardt M, Schattenberg P, Klimek J. Effect of fluoride compounds on enamel erosion in vitro: a comparison of amine, sodium and stannous fluoride. Caries Res. 2008;42:2–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hara AT, Gonzalez-Cabezas C, Creeth J et al. Interplay between fluoride and abrasivity of dentifrices on dental erosion–abrasion. J Dent. 2009a;37:781–5.Google Scholar
  14. Hara AT, Kelly SA, Gonzalez-Cabezas C et al. Influence of fluoride availability of dentifrices on eroded enamel remineralization in situ. Caries Res. 2009b;43:57–63.Google Scholar
  15. Holme B, Hove L, Tveit AB. Using white light interferometry to measure etching of dental enamel. Measurement. 2005;38:137–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hooper SM, Newcombe RG, Faller R et al. The protective effects of toothpaste against erosion by orange juice: studies in situ and in vitro. J Dent. 2007;35:476–81.Google Scholar
  17. Hove L, Holme B, Øgaard B, Willumsen T, Tveit AB. The protective effect of TiF4, SnF2 and NaF on erosion of enamel by hydrochloric acid in vitro measured by white light interferometry. Caries Res. 2006;40:440–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hove LH, Holme B, Young A, Tveit AB. The protective effect of TiF4, SnF2 and NaF against erosion-like lesions in situ. Caries Res. 2008;42:68–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hove LH, Young A, Tveit AB. An in vitro study on the effect of TiF4 treatment against erosion by hydrochloric acid on pellicle-covered enamel. Caries Res. 2007;41:80–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Huysmans MC, Jager DH, Ruben JL et al. Reduction of erosive wear in situ by stannous fluoride-containing toothpaste. Caries Res. 2011;45:518–23.Google Scholar
  21. Lagerløf F, Saxegaard E, Barkvoll P, Rølla G. Effects of inorganic orthophosphate and pyrophosphate on dissolution of calcium fluoride in water. J Dent Res. 1988;67:447–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Magalhaes AC, Wiegand A, Rios D, Buzalaf MA, Lussi A. Fluoride in dental erosion. Monogr Oral Sci. 2011;22:158–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rosin-Grget K, Sutej I, Lincir I. The effect of saliva on the formation of KOH-soluble fluoride after topical application of amine fluoride solutions of varying fluoride concentration and pH. Caries Res. 2007;41:235–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rykke M, Ellingsen JE, Sønju T. Chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy of acquired pellicle formed in vivo on stannous fluoride treated enamel. Scand J Dent Res. 1991;99:205–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Rykke M, Sønju T, Skjørland K, Rølla G. Protein adsorption to hydroxyapatite and to calcium fluoride in vitro and amino acid analyses of pellicle formed on normal enamel and on calcium-fluoride-covered enamel in vivo. Acta Odontol Scand. 1989;47:245–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Saxegaard E, Rølla G. Fluoride acquisition on and in human enamel during topical application in vitro. Scand J Dent Res. 1988;96:523–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Schlueter N, Hardt M, Lussi A et al. Tin-containing fluoride solutions as anti-erosive agents in enamel: an in vitro tin-uptake, tissue-loss, and scanning electron micrograph study. Eur J Oral Sci. 2009a;117:427–34.Google Scholar
  28. Schlueter N, Klimek J, Ganss C. Efficacy of an experimental tin-F-containing solution in erosive tissue loss in enamel and dentine in situ. Caries Res. 2009b;43:415–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schlueter N, Klimek J, Ganss C. Efficacy of tin-containing solutions on erosive mineral loss in enamel and dentine in situ. Clin Oral Investig. 2011;15:361–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stenhagen KR, Hove LH, Holme B, Tveit AB. The effect of daily fluoride mouth rinsing on enamel erosive/abrasive wear in situ. Caries Res. 2012;47:2–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tveit AB, Klinge B, Tøtdal B, Selvig KA. Long-term retention of TiF4 and SnF2 after topical application to dentin in dogs. Scand J Dent Res. 1988;96:536–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Wei SHY, Forbes WC. Electron-microprobe investigations of stannous fluoride reactions with enamel surfaces. J Dent Res. 1974;53:51–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wiegand A, Attin T. Design of erosion/abrasion studies—insights and rational concepts. Caries Res. 2011;45(Suppl 1):53–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wiegand A, Schwerzmann M, Sener B et al. Impact of toothpaste slurry abrasivity and toothbrush filament stiffness on abrasion of eroded enamel—an in vitro study. Acta Odontol Scand. 2008;66:231–5.Google Scholar
  35. Willumsen T, Øgaard B, Hansen F, Rølla G. Effects from pretreatment of stannous fluoride versus sodium fluoride on enamel exposed to 0.1 M or 0.01 M hydrochloric acid. Acta Odontol Scand. 2004;62:278–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Young A, Thrane PS, Saxegaard E, Jonski G, Rølla G. Effect of stannous fluoride toothpaste on erosion-like lesions: an in vivo study. Eur J Oral Sci. 2006;114:180–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yu H, Attin T, Wiegand A, Buchalla W. Effects of various fluoride solutions on enamel erosion in vitro. Caries Res. 2010;44:390–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. H. Hove
    • 1
    Email author
  • K. R. Stenhagen
    • 1
  • B. Holme
    • 2
  • A. B. Tveit
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cariology and Gerodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Institute of Clinical DentistryUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.SINTEF Materials and ChemistryOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations