Advertisement

European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 213–219 | Cite as

Evaluation of the tooth brushing skills in children aged 6–12 years

  • P. PujarEmail author
  • V. V. Subbareddy
Original Scientific Article

Abstract

Aim

To evaluate the tooth brushing skills in children aged between 6 and 12 years and its relation with age, type of grip used, duration of brushing and gender.

Method

A total of 105 children aged between 6 and 12 years were divided into seven groups and their plaque scores, type of grip used and duration of brushing were assessed.

Results

The most preferred grip was the distal oblique (58.1 %). Oblique, distal oblique and power grips were more efficient (plaque reduction up to 70 %). Plaque removal efficacy improved with age (57 % in 6-year-olds and 82 % in 12-year-old children). Plaque reduction was greater when the duration of brushing was longer (82 % plaque reduction when the brushing time was >2.5 min). Overall, the mean duration of tooth brushing in children aged 6–12 years was 1.71 min (103 s).

Conclusions

Tooth brushing skills improved with age and the duration of tooth brushing made a significant difference to the oral hygiene status of the child. The type of grip used and gender did not influence tooth brushing ability in this group of children. Tooth brushing skills were low in children younger than 10 years of age. Hence, parental supervision is considered necessary and recommended until 10 years of age.

Keywords

Age Gender Grips Manual dexterity 

References

  1. Alsada LH, Sigal MJ, Limeback H, Fiege J, Kulkarni GV. Development and testing of an Audio-visual aid for improving infant oral health through primary caregiver education. J Can Educ. 2005; 71(4):241, 241a–241 h.Google Scholar
  2. Beals D, Wong PM, Allen B, Rutter B. Grip architecture in manual tooth brushing. Int Dent Res. 1999;78:2487.Google Scholar
  3. Creeth JE, Gallagher A, Sowinski J, et al. The effect of brushing time and dentifrice on dental plaque removal in vivo. J Dent Hyg. 2009;83(3):111–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Das UM, Singhal P. Tooth brushing skills for the children aged 3–11 years. 2009;27(2):104–7.Google Scholar
  5. Leal SC, Bezerra AC, de Toledo. Effectiveness of teaching methods for tooth brushing in preschool children. Braz Dent J. 2002;13(2):133–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Macgregor ID, Rugg-Gunn AJ. Survey of tooth brushing duration in 85 uninstructed English school children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1979;7:297–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. McClure DB. A comparison of tooth brushing techniques for the preschool child. J Dent Child. 1966;33:205–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Mentes AA, Atukeren J. A study of manual tooth brushing skills in children aged 3–11 years. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2002;27:91–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Mohebbi SZ, Virtanen JI, Murtomaa H, Vahid-Golpayegani M, Vehkalahti MM. Mothers as facilitators of oral hygiene in early childhood. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2008;18(1):48–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Moses J, Rangeeth BN, Gurunathan D. Prevalence of dental caries, socio-economic status and treatment needs among 5 to 15 year old school going children of Chidambaram. J Clin Diagn Res. 2011;5(1):146–51.Google Scholar
  11. Niemi ML, Ainamo J, Etemadzadeh H. The effect of toothbrush grip on gingival abrasion and plaque removal during tooth brushing. J Clin Periodontol. 1987;14(1):19–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nowak AJ, Skotowski MC, Widmer R, Strate J, Cugini M. A practice based evaluation of a range of children’s manual toothbrushes: safety and acceptance. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2002;23(3 Suppl 2):17–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ogasawara T, Watanabe T, Kasahara H. Readiness for tooth brushing of young children. ASDC J Dent Child. 1992;59(5):353–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. O’Leary T. Emphasis: current approaches to prevention control. J Am Dent Assoc. 1984;109:690–702.Google Scholar
  15. Pirate S. Parental knowledge, attitudes and practices about oral health: a study of kindergarten children in Pitt county NC. A professional paper. Fall. 2006. www.ecu.edu/cs-dhs/dph/upload/MPH-6991-Paper.
  16. Sangnes G. Effectiveness of vertical and horizontal tooth brushing techniques in the removal of plaque. J Dent Child. 1974;41:119–23.Google Scholar
  17. Sharma S, Yeluri R, Jain AA, et al. Effect of toothbrush grip on plaque removal during manual tooth brushing in children. J Oral Sci. 2012;54(2):183–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Simmons S, Smith R, Gelbier S. Effect of oral hygiene instruction on brushing skills in preschool children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1983;11(4):193–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sogi GM, Bhaskar DJ. Dental caries and oral hygiene status of school children in Davangere related to their socio-economic levels: an epidemiological study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2002;20(4):152–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Slot DE, Wiggelinkhuizen L, Rosema NAM, van der Weijden GA. The efficacy of manual toothbrushes following a brushing exercise: a systematic review. Int J Dent Hyg. 2012;10(3):187–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Tsamtsouris A, White GE, Clark ER. The effect of instruction and supervised tooth brushing on the reduction of dental plaque in kindergarten children. ASDC J Dent Child. 1979;46(3):204–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Unkel JH, Fenton SJ, Hobbs G Jr, Frere CL. Tooth brushing ability is related to age in children. ASDC J Dent Child. 1995;62(5):346–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. van der Weijden VD, Timmerman MF, Danser MM, Velden VD. Relationship between the plaque removal efficacy of a manual toothbrush and brushing force. J Clin Periodontol. 1998;25(5):413–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Maratha Mandal’s Dental College and Research CentreBelgaumIndia
  2. 2.Department of PaedodonticsCollege of Dental SciencesDavangereIndia

Personalised recommendations