Journal of Arid Land

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 75–85 | Cite as

Eco-physiological studies on desert plants: germination of Halothamnus iraqensis Botsch. seeds under different conditions

  • Arvind BhattEmail author
  • Narayana R. Bhat
  • Valentina Murru
  • Andrea Santo


With the aim to investigate if the halophyte Halothamnus iraqensis Botsch. can be suitable for re-vegetation and remediation of salt-affected lands, this study evaluated (1) the effects of photoperiod, thermoperiod, storage period and wings' presence on its seed germination, and (2) the ability of its seeds to have successful germination recovery after salt stress. Germination tests in different photoperiods (12 h light/12 h darkness and total darkness) and thermoperiods (15°C/20°C and 20°C/25°C) were conducted for seeds collected in 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. The seeds collected in 2016 were sown under different salinity levels (0, 100, 200, 400 and 600 mM NaCl) to assess the salinity tolerance during the germination. Wings' presence highly inhibited seed germination of this species in both photoperiods and thermoperiods under all salinity level treatments. In addition, the germination recovery occurred well when seeds were deprived of their wings. The photoperiod of 12 h light/12 h darkness and the thermoperiod of 15°C/20°C were the best conditions for seed germination. Germination percentages of H. iraqensis seeds decreased with the increasing storage duration, especially after three years of the collection. In addition, H. iraqensis seeds were able to germinate under different salinity levels, and their germination percentages decreased with increasing salinity levels. H. iraqensis seeds have the ability to recover their germination after alleviating the salt stress, irrespective of photoperiod, highlighting the halophilous character of this species.


wings’ presence storage period photoperiod thermoperiod salt stress Halothamnus iraqensis Botsch 


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This study was funded by Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. The authors are very grateful to Dr. John A MALTON, Dr. Samuel C ALLEN and Prof. Yougasphree NAIDOO for the linguistic revision of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© China Science Publishing Media Ltd. (Science Press) and Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arvind Bhatt
    • 1
    Email author
  • Narayana R. Bhat
    • 1
  • Valentina Murru
    • 2
  • Andrea Santo
    • 3
  1. 1.Kuwait Institute for Scientific ResearchSafatKuwait
  2. 2.University of CagliariCagliariItaly
  3. 3.SelargiusItaly

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