Planting density affected biomass and grain yield of maize for seed production in an arid region of Northwest China
- 6 Downloads
Field experiments were conducted from 2012 to 2015 in an arid region of Northwest China to investigate the effects of planting density on plant growth, yield, and water use efficiency (WUE) of maize for seed production. Five planting densities of 6.75, 8.25, 9.75, 11.25 and 12.75 plants/m2 were conducted in 2012, and a planting density of 14.25 plants/m2 was added from 2013 to 2015. Through comparison with the AquaCrop yield model, a modified model was developed to estimate the biomass accumulation and yield under different planting densities using adjustment coefficient for normalized biomass water productivity and harvest index. It was found that the modified yield model had a better performance and could generate results with higher determination coefficient and lower error. The results indicated that higher planting density increased the leaf area index and biomass accumulation, but decreased the biomass accumulation per plant. The total yield increased rapidly as planting density increased to 11.25 plants/m2, but only a slight increase was observed when the density was greater than 11.25 plants/m2. The WUE also reached the maximum when planting density was 11.25 plants/m2, which was the recommended planting density of maize for seed production in Northwest China.
Keywordsplanting density yield model biomass accumulation grain yield water use efficiency Northwest China
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
We are grateful for the research grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51379208, 91425302, 51621061), the Government Public Research Funds for Projects of the Ministry of Agriculture (201503125) and the Discipline Innovative Engineering Plan (111 Program, B14002).
- Akmal M, Asim M, Gilbert M. 2014. Influence of seasonal variation on radiation use efficiency and crop growth of maize planted at various densities and nitrogen rates. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 51(4): 835–846.Google Scholar
- Allen R G, Pereira L S, Raes D, et al. 1998. Crop evaporation: guidelines for computing crop water requirements. In: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56. Rome: FAO, 300.Google Scholar
- Cox W J, Otis D J. 1993. Grain and silage yield responses of commercial corn hybrids to plant densities. In: Agronomy Abstracts. Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy, 132.Google Scholar
- Griesh M H, Yakout G M. 2001. Effect of plant population density and nitrogen fertilization on yield and yield components of some white and yellow maize hybrids under drip irrigation system in sandy soil. In: Horst W J, Schenk M K, Bürkert A, et al. Plant Nutrition. Dordrecht: Springer, 810–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Harper L A, Pallas J E Jr, Bruce R R, et al. 1979. Greenhouse microclimate for tomatoes in the southeast USA. American Society for Horticultural Science, 104(5): 659–663.Google Scholar
- Johnsonb R R, Green D E, Jordan C W. 1982. What is the best soybean row width? A U.S. perspective. Crops and Soils Magazine, 43(4): 10–13.Google Scholar
- Kamel M S, El-Raouf M S, Mahmoud E A, et al. 1983. Response of two maize varieties to different plant densities in relation to weed control treatments. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 19: 79–93.Google Scholar
- Mohamed M M A. 1999. Effect of some agronomic practices on corn production (Zea mays L.) under drip irrigation system. PhD Dissertation. Ismailia, Egypt: Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, 107.Google Scholar
- Olson R A, Sander D H. 1988. Corn production. In: Sprague G F, Dudley J W. Corn and Corn Improvement (3rd ed.). Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy, 639–686.Google Scholar
- Raes D, Steduto P, HsiaoT C, et al. 2009. AquaCrop–The FAO crop model to simulate yield response to water: II. Main algorithms and software description. Agronomy Journal, 101(3): 438–477.Google Scholar
- Raes D, Steduto P, Hsiao C, et al. 2011. AquaCrop Version 3.1Plus Reference Manual. Rome, Italy: FAO.Google Scholar
- Rahmati H. 2009. Effect of plant density and nitrogen rates on yield and nitrogen efficiency of grain corn. World Applied Science Journal, 7(8): 958–961.Google Scholar
- Soliman F H, Goda A S, Ragheb M M, et al. 1995. Response of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids to plant populations density under different environmental conditions. Hip International, 23(6):124–124.Google Scholar
- Steduto P, Hsiao T C, Raes D, et al. 2009. AquaCrop-the FAO crop model to simulate yield response to water: I. Concepts and underlying principles. Agronomy Journal, 101(3): 426–437.Google Scholar
- Tetio-Kagho F, Gardner F P. 1998. Responses of maize to plant population density. II. Reproductive development, yield, and yield adjustments. Agronomy Journal, 80(6): 935–940.Google Scholar
- Thimmappa V, Reddy M S, Reddy U, et al. 2014. Effect of nitrogen levels and plant densities on growth parameters, yield attributes and yield of kharif maize (Zea mays L.). Crop Research, 47(1–3): 29–32.Google Scholar