Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica

, Volume 53, Issue 4, pp 607–622 | Cite as

Determination and interpolation of parameters for precise conversion of GNSS wet zenith delay to precipitable water vapor in Turkey

  • Ilke DenizEmail author
  • Gokhan Gurbuz
  • Cetin Mekik
Original Study


Studies of estimating precipitable water vapor (PWV) from continuous Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations with high temporal and spatial resolution continuously have become popular in recent years. In this estimation process, the weighted mean temperature (Tm) and the conversion parameter (Q) are the most important parameters to convert tropospheric zenith delay (ZTD) to PWV. In this study, Tm and Q time series are derived by assessing 4103 profile observations of eight Turkish radiosonde stations (RS) for approximately one year. The Tm − Ts linear regression model is developed. In analogy to Tm − Ts model, the Q values are modelled based on different combinations of surface temperature (Ts), station latitude (θ), station height (H) and day of the year (DOY). To test the validity of these models, the GNSS derived PWV (PWVGNSS) values are computed from the GNSS data of just over a year for the Istanbul and Ankara RS-GNSS stations using the most precise Tm and Q models, and later they are compared with the PWVRS values. The mean of the differences obtained for the Ankara and Istanbul stations are found to be 1.4–1.6 mm with a standard deviation of 1.7–1.8 mm, respectively. Moreover, modelling and interpolating meteorological parameters such as temperature, pressure, as well as PWV and ZTD are tested using the spherical harmonic functions (SHF). The results indicate that SHF can be safely and accurately used for modelling and interpolating meteorological parameters and ZTD.


GNSS meteorology Precipitable water vapor Weighted mean temperature Q conversion factor Spherical harmonic interpolation Radiosonde 



This study is funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) for the project titled “The Estimation of Atmospheric Water Vapour with GPS” (Project No: 112Y350).


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geomatics Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringBulent Ecevit UniversityZonguldakTurkey

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