Advertisement

Shifting Resonances in Wind Farms to Higher Frequencies due to TUPF Converters

  • Camila Elias Almeida
  • Braz de Jesus Cardoso Filho
Article
  • 54 Downloads

Abstract

The increasing penetration of wind power in power systems is an ongoing trend. In wind farms, harmonic distortion and resonances concern both wind turbine manufacturers and power system operators. The frequency of occurrence and amplification factors of resonances are affected by the number of wind turbines in operation, their connection in series or in parallel through the collecting grid and the type of active front-end converter employed. This paper focuses on the latter and proposes the use of the True Unity Power Factor converter as an alternative, in which the resonance avoidance feature is built-in the wind turbines and is independent of external circumstances. Besides suppressing current harmonics below the 50th order without using filter capacitors, the TUPF converter modifies the parallel resonance characteristics of the wind farm by pushing the frequencies of their occurrences to higher values, making them less likely to be excited. The nearly sinusoidal output current behavior is demonstrated via simulation and experimental results and the variation in resonance peak characteristics is corroborated by modal analysis in a case study wind farm. It is concluded that there is a significant advantage in employing these converters in wind power generation, especially at the buses identified as the most prone to being the center of resonances.

Keywords

Wind farms Resonance Power quality Harmonics Power converters 

References

  1. Almeida, C. E., & Cardoso Filho, B. J. (2017). Impact of active front end topology on wind farm resonance. In IEEE power and energy society general meeting 2017.Google Scholar
  2. Birk, J., & Andresen, B. (2007). Parallel-connected converters for optimizing efficiency, reliability and grid harmonics in a wind turbine. In 2007 European conference on power electronics and applications, EPE (pp. 4–10).Google Scholar
  3. Blaabjerg, F., Liserre, M., & Ma, K. (2012). Power electronics converters for wind turbine systems. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 48(2), 708–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bradt, M. et al. (2012). Harmonics and resonance issues in wind power plants. In Proceedings of the IEEE power engineering society transmission and distribution conference (pp. 1–8).Google Scholar
  5. Chaudhary, S. K., Hoseinzadeh, B., Jensen, C. F., & Dk, E. (2016). Challenges with harmonic compensation at a remote bus in offshore wind power plant. In IEEE 16th international conference on environment and electrical engineering (pp. 2–7).Google Scholar
  6. Chaudhary, S. K., Kocewiak, Ł. H., & Hesselbæk, B. (2013). Harmonic mitigation methods in large offshore wind power plants. In Proceedings of the 12th wind integration workshop: international workshop on large-scale integration of wind power into power systems as well as transmission networks for offshore wind farms (pp. 443–448).Google Scholar
  7. Dewan, S. B., & Slemon, G. R. (1991). Analysis of a PWM ac to dc voltage source converter under the predicted current control with a fixed switching frequency. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 27(4), 756–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Emadi, A., Abdolhosein, N., & Bekiarov, S. (2005). Uninterruptible power supplies and active filters (Vol. 1). Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  9. Fuchs, F., & Mertens, A. (2014). Prediction and avoidance of grid-connected converter’s instability caused by wind park typical, load-varying grid resonance. In 2014 IEEE energy conversion congress and exposition (ECCE) (pp. 2633–2640).Google Scholar
  10. Global Wind Energy Council, (2016). Global wind report—annual market update 2015. Global Wind Energy Council, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.gwec.net/global-figures/wind-energy-global-status/. Accessed 27 Sep 2016.
  11. IEC, (2001). Wind turbine generator systems—Part 21: Measurement and assessment of power quality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines (vol. 12).Google Scholar
  12. Iov, F., Teodorescu, R., Blaabjerg, F., Andresen, B., Birk, J., & Miranda, J. (2006). Grid code compliance of grid-side converter in wind turbine systems. In PESC Rec.IEEE annual power electronics specialists conference.Google Scholar
  13. Islam, R., Guo, Y., & Zhu, J. (2012). A novel medium-voltage converter system for compact and light wind turbine generators. In 22nd Australasian universities power engineering conference (AUPEC) (pp. 1–6).Google Scholar
  14. Kadir, A. F. A., Mohamed, A., Shareef, H., & Wanik, M. Z. C. (2012). Impact of multiple inverter based distributed generation units on harmonic resonance. In International conference of renewable energies and power quality (pp. 1–6).Google Scholar
  15. Kocewiak, L. (2012). Harmonics in large offshore wind farms. Aalborg: Aalborg University.Google Scholar
  16. Laka, A., Barrena, J. A., Chivite-Zabalza, J., & Rodriguez, M. A. (2013). Analysis and improved operation of a PEBB-based voltage-source converter for FACTS applications. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 28(3), 1330–1338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li, J., Samaan, N., & Williams, S. (2008). Modeling of large wind farm systems for dynamic and harmonics analysis. In 2008 IEEE/PES transmission and distribution conference and exposition (pp. 1–7).Google Scholar
  18. Liserre, M., et al. (2011). Overview of multi-MW wind turbines and wind parks. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 58(4), 1081–1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Math, B. & Yang, K. (2013). Harmonics—another aspect of the interaction between wind-power installations and the grid. In 22nd international conference on electricity distributionnd international conference on electricity distribution (vol. 0408, pp. 10–13).Google Scholar
  20. Mohammad, S., Das, S. N., & Roy, N. K. (2012). A review of the state of the art of generators and power electronics for wind energy conversion systems. In 3rd international conference on development in the in renewable energy technology (pp. 1–6).Google Scholar
  21. Mohammadi, H. R. (2012). A new method for selective harmonic elimination in voltage source inverter using imperialist competitive algorithm. In 2012 3rd Power electronics and drive systems technology (PEDSTC), Tehran, 2012 (pp. 175–180).  https://doi.org/10.1109/PEDSTC.2012.6183321.
  22. Monjo, L., Sainz, L., Liang, J., & Pedra, J. (2015). Study of resonance in wind parks. Electric Power Systems Research, 128, 30–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nisak, K., et al. (2014). Harmonic compensation analysis in offshore wind power plants using hybrid filters. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 50(3), 2050–2060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parreiras, T. M., & Cardoso Filho, B. J. (2014). Current control of three level neutral point clamped voltage source rectifiers using selective harmonic elimination. In IECON 201440th annual conference of the IEEE industrial electronics society (pp. 4608–4614).Google Scholar
  25. Parreiras, T. M., & Rocha, S. (2012). Distorções Harmônicas Geradas por um Parque de Turbinas Eólicas. In Anais do IV Simpósio Brasileiro de Sistemas Elétricos (pp. 1–6).Google Scholar
  26. Parreiras, T. M., Justino, J. C. G., & Cardoso Filho, B. J. (2015). The true unity power factor converter—a practical filterless solution for sinusoidal currents. In 9th international conference on power electronicsECCE Asia “Green World with Power Electron”. ICPE 2015-ECCE Asia (pp. 2557–2565).Google Scholar
  27. Parreiras, T. M., Justino, J. C. G., Rocha, A. V., & Cardoso Filho, B. J. (2016). True unit power factor active front end for high-capacity belt-conveyor systems. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 52(3), 2737–2746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Patel, D., Varma, R. K., Seethapathy, R., & Dang, M. (2010). Impact of wind turbine generators on network resonance distortion. In 2010 23rd Canadian conference on electrical and computer engineering (CCECE) (vol. 1, pp. 1–6).Google Scholar
  29. Patel, H., & Hoft, R. (1974). Generalized techniques of harmonic elimination and voltage control in thyristor inverters: Part II—voltage control techniques. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, IA-10(5), 666–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Polinder, H., Ferreira, J. A., Jensen, B. B., Abrahamsen, A. B., Atallah, K., & McMahon, R. A. (2013). Trends in wind turbine generator systems. IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, 1(3), 174–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pontt, J., Rodríguez, J., & Huerta, R. (2004). Mitigation of noneliminated harmonics of SHEPWM three-level multipulse three-phase active front end converters with low switching frequency for meeting standard IEEE-519-92. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 19(6), 1594–1600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rauma, K. (2012). Electrical resonances and harmonics in a wind power plant. Helsinki: Aalto University.Google Scholar
  33. Rauma, K., & Hasan, K. M. (2012). Resonance analysis of a wind power plant with modal approach. In 2012 IEEE international symposium on industrial electronics (ISIE) (pp. 2042–2047).Google Scholar
  34. Rendusara, D. A., Von Jouanne, A., & Enjeti, P. N. (1996). Design considerations for 12-pulse diode rectifier systems operating under voltage unbalance and pre-existing voltage distortion with some corrective measures. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 32(6), 1293–1303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rodriguez, P., Pou, J., Bergas, J., Candela, J. I., Burgos, R. P., & Boroyevich, D. (2007). Decoupled double synchronous reference frame PLL for power converters control. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 22(2), 584–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Salam, Z., Majed, A., & Amjad, A. M. (2015). Design and implementation of 15-level cascaded multi-level voltage source inverter with harmonics elimination pulse-width modulation using differential evolution method. IET Power Electronics, 8(9), 1740–1748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shahalami, S. H.,& Hosseini, R. (2014). Improvement of wind farm power quality by means of ANN-controlled hybrid filter. In PEDSTC 20145th annual international power electronics, drive systems and technologies conference (pp. 544–549).Google Scholar
  38. Shen, G., Zhu, X., Chen, M., & Xu, D. (2009). A new current feedback PR control strategy for grid-connected VSI with an LCL filter. In IEEE applied power electronics conference and expositionAPEC (pp. 1564–1569).Google Scholar
  39. Sun, J. (2013). Modeling and analysis of harmonic resonance involving renewable energy sources. In International conference on power system transients (IPST) (pp. 1–7).Google Scholar
  40. Tiegna, H., Amara, Y., Barakat, G., & Dakyo, B. (2012). Overview of high power wind turbine generators. In 2012 international conference on renewable energy research and applications (ICRERA) (pp. 1–6).Google Scholar
  41. Vijayakumar, R. (2015). Selective harmonic elimination PWM method using seven level inverters by genetic algorithm optimization technique. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 4(02), 812–818.Google Scholar
  42. Wang, X., Blaabjerg, F., Liserre, M., Chen, Z., He, J., & Li, Y. (2014a). An active damper for stabilizing power-electronics-based AC systems. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 29(7), 3318–3329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang, X., Blaabjerg, F., & Loh, P. C. (2014b). Proportional derivative based stabilizing control of paralleled grid converters with cables in renwable power plants. In 2014 IEEE energy conversion congress and exposition ECCE (pp. 4917–4924).Google Scholar
  44. Wang, X., Blaabjerg, F., & Wu, W. (2014b). Modeling and analysis of harmonic stability in an AC power-electronics- based power system. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 29(12), 6421–6432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wang, F., Duarte, J. L., Hendrix, M. A. M., & Ribeiro, P. F. (2011). Modeling and analysis of grid harmonic distortion impact of aggregated DG inverters. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 26(3), 786–797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. WECC, (2014). WECC wind plant dynamic modeling guidelines.Google Scholar
  47. Xu, W., Huang, Z., Cui, Y., & Wang, H. (2005). Harmonic resonance mode analysis. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 20(2 I), 1182–1190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yang, K., et al. (2016). Unified selective harmonic elimination for multilevel converter. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 99, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Young, C., & Wu, S. (2014). Selective harmonic elimination in multi-level inverter with zig-zag connection transformers. IET Power Electronics, 7, 876–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Yuan, X., Chai, J., & Li, Y. (2012). A transformer-less high-power converter for large permanent magnet wind generator systems. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 3(3), 318–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhang, L., & Cai, X. (2010). A novel multi-level medium voltage converter designed for medium voltage wind power generation system. In 2010 Asia-pacific power and energy engineering conference (pp. 1–4).Google Scholar
  52. Zhang, S., Jiang, S., Lu, X., Ge, B., & Peng, F. Z. (2014). Resonance issues and damping techniques for grid-connected inverters with long transmission cable. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 29(1), 110–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zheng, R., Bollen, M. H. J., & Zhong, J. (2010). Harmonic resonances due to a grid-connected wind farm. In ICHQP 201014th international conference on harmonics and quality of power (pp. 1–7).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Brazilian Society for Automatics--SBA 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Program in Electrical EngineeringUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil

Personalised recommendations