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A Novel Approach for Stall Prevention and Rotation Speed Limiting in a Min–Max Controller Structure

  • Antonio Hadade NetoEmail author
  • Takashi Yoneyama
Article
  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

This paper proposes a novel approach for the implementation of limit controllers used for stall prevention and rotation speed limitation of a single-spool jet engine. In this approach, the protection requirements regarding the rotation speed are achieved through the use of a filter applied to the reference that will be sent to the power management controller of a Min–Max structure controller. The main controller variable is the turbine’s core rotation speed. The filter chooses the most appropriate reference value aiming at respecting the engine established limits, such as the stall margin and the maximum rotation speed, during transient and steady-state behaviors. The Min–Max compensators structure chosen for the implementation of the controllers is proportional–integral with Back Calculation as the anti-windup technique. Simulation model of a GE-J85-13 single-spool jet engine has been used to test the new approach and compare it to the more common Min–Max structure, where each controller is implemented individually. The simulation contemplates the case where a step function is applied to the power management controller, where the final value is the maximum allowed rotation speed value, at sea-level, static and standard-day temperature conditions. The simulation is repeated for different values of Back Calculation gains using both Min–Max structures, and the behavior of the GE-J85-13 engine is evaluated in each case for comparison proposes.

Keywords

Jet engine Stall prevention Min–Max Proportional–integral Speed limitation Back Calculation Windup Reference filter 

List of Symbols

AS\((N_{c})\)

Acceleration schedule vector

AS\(_{N_{c}}^{\mathrm{Vec}}\)

Acceleration schedule vector containing the maximum allowed variations for given values of \(N_{c}\)

e

Process error

\(e_{\mathrm{I}}\)

Integrator error

EPR

Engine pressure ratio

\(e_\mathrm{ss}\)

Steady value of PI compensator error

\(F_\mathrm{n}\)

Net thrust

\(\mathrm{FR}_{\mathrm{N}}\)

Rotation speed filtered reference

I

Moment of inertia of the engine’s rotating set

\(K_{\mathrm{b}}\)

Back Calculation constant

\(K_{\mathrm{bN}}\)

Back Calculation constant used on a rotation speed controller

\(K_{\mathrm{bT}}\)

Back Calculation constant used on a temperature controller

\(K_{\mathrm{i}}\)

Integrator term constant of a PI compensator

\(K_{\mathrm{p}}\)

Proportional term constant of a PI compensator

N

Shaft mechanical rotation speed

\(N_{\mathrm{c}}\)

Shaft corrected rotation speed

\(N_{\mathrm{D}}\)

Design point rotation speed

\(N_{\mathrm{max}}\)

Maximum allowed mechanical rotation speed

\(N_{{ c}}^{\mathrm{Vec}}\)

Vector containing \(N_{{c}}\) values and used in acceleration schedule

PI

Proportional–integral compensator

\(P_{\mathrm{s}3}\)

Combustion chamber static pressure

\(P_{\mathrm{t}2}\)

Compressor inlet total pressure

\(P_{\mathrm{t}5}\)

Turbine inlet total pressure

\(\mathrm{PR}\)

Compressor pressure ratio

\(\mathrm{PR}_{\mathrm{stall}}\)

Compressor pressure ratio for stall occurrence at a given \(N_{c}\)

\(\mathrm{Ref}_{\mathrm{N}}\)

Rotation speed desired reference

\(\mathrm{RU}\)

Ratio unit parameter

\(\mathrm{RU}_{\mathrm{min}}\)

Minimum value allowed for RU parameter

\(\mathrm{SM}\)

Stall margin

\({t}_{\mathrm{s}}\)

Settling time

\(T_{\mathrm{s}}\)

Sample Period

\(T_{\mathrm{t}2}\)

Compressor inlet total temperature

\(T_{\mathrm{t}4}\)

Turbine inlet temperature

\(T_{\mathrm{t4max}}\)

Maximum allowed TIT

\(T_{\mathrm{t}5}\)

Turbine exhaust temperature

\(T_{\mathrm{std}}\)

Standard-day temperature

u

Actuation signal calculated by PI compensator

\(u_{0a}\)

Initial steady value of actuation signal calculated by acceleration limit controller

\(u_{0T_{\mathrm{t}4}}\)

Initial steady value of actuation signal calculated by \(T_{\mathrm{t}4}\) limit controller;

\(u_{0N}\)

Initial steady value of actuation signal calculated by N limit controller

\(u_{0\mathrm{pm}}\)

Initial steady value of actuation signal calculated by power management controller

\(u_{0\mathrm{r}}\)

Initial steady value of real actuation signal

\(u_{\mathrm{min}}\)

Minimum allowed actuation signal

\(u_{\mathrm{max}}\)

Maximum allowed actuation signal

\(u_{\mathrm{ss}}\)

Steady value of actuation signal calculated by PI compensator

\(u_{r}\)

Actual control signal sent to engine’s fuel pump

\(u_{\mathrm{rss}}\)

Real actuation signal steady value

\(W_{\mathrm{c}}\)

Power demanded by the jet engine’s compressor

\(w_{\mathrm{f}}\)

Fuel mass flow

\(W_{\mathrm{t}}\)

Power delivered by the jet engine’s turbine

References

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Copyright information

© Brazilian Society for Automatics--SBA 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Praça Marechal Eduardo GomesSão José dos CamposBrazil

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