Methodology for Specification of Three-Phase Induction Motors Applied to Drive Vehicles Used by Collectors of Recyclable Materials

  • Leonardo Adolpho R. Silva
  • Luiza A. Rodrigues
  • Braz Jesus Cardoso


This paper presents a methodology for specification of three phase induction motors applied to the traction of vehicles used by recyclable material collectors. In this methodology, it is used a load cell and a GPS to acquire the force and speed imposed by the collectors during actual work journeys. With the adopted approach, it is possible to preview the most efficient motor capable to supply the work cycles demanded by the collectors, avoiding so reduction in motor lifetime by over temperature, an highest electrical energy efficiency and also avoiding the battery bank oversizing. The methodology is expandable to specify electric motors dedicated to substitute the human force in other vehicles whose the human is the primary power source, such as the charts applied by civil construction workers, dockers, farmers or even vehicles for personal transportation like bicycles and scooters. It is highlighted the approach taken to describe the vehicle model referred to the motor axis through vector control and a reduced number of sensors and tests for parameters extraction.


Electric vehicle Specification Motor Human powered Collectors Methodology 

List of Symbols

\(T_\mathrm{e}^{*}, T_\mathrm{e}\)

Setpoint and actual values for electromagnetic torques


Load torque


Squirrel cage three phase induction motor

\(\omega ^{*}, \omega \)

Setpoint and actual motor angular speed

\(\omega _\mathrm{e}\)

Stator supply frequency

s.\(\omega _\mathrm{e}\)

Motor slip


Motor number of poles

\(i_\mathrm{sq}^{*}, i_\mathrm{sq}\)

Setpoint and actual values for q axis stator current

\(i_\mathrm{sd}^{*}, i_\mathrm{sd}\)

Setpoint and actual values for d axis stator current

\(K_\mathrm{te }\)

Torque constant given by \(T_\mathrm{e}/{i}_\mathrm{sq}\)

\(v_\mathrm{sd}, v_\mathrm{sq }\)

d and q axis stator voltages

\(L_\mathrm{ls}, L_\mathrm{lr}\)

Stator and rotor leakage inductances

\(L_\mathrm{s,} L_\mathrm{r,}M\)

Stator, rotor and mutual inductances

\(\sigma \cdot L_\mathrm{s}\)

Stator transient inductance given by L\(_\mathrm{s} \cdot (1-M^{2}/({L}_\mathrm{s} \cdot \) L\(_\mathrm{r}))\)

\(\tau _\mathrm{r }\)

Rotor time constant


Motor stator resistance


Motor thermal capacitance


Motor thermal resistance


Fused steel specific heat


Motor loss power

\(T_\mathrm{{motor,max} }\)

Maximum allowable motor temperature

T\(_\mathrm{motor}, \hbox {T}_\mathrm{env}\)

Motor and environment temperatures


Motor mass


Energy supplied in the motor stator terminals


Gearbox transmission ration

r\(_\mathrm{wheel }\)

Wheel radius


Motor and load moment of inertia



The authors acknowledge the support received from the Centro de Estudos da Aeronáutica, UFMG, by the valuable contribution related to the use of the data acquisition system— CEAFDAS—and to the Collectors Association of São João del-Rei whose members dedicated indispensable contribution during the field data measurement and provided rich information about their way of work.


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Copyright information

© Brazilian Society for Automatics--SBA 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonardo Adolpho R. Silva
    • 1
  • Luiza A. Rodrigues
    • 2
  • Braz Jesus Cardoso
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate Program in Electrical EngineeringFederal University of Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratory of Electrical Machines and Energy Conversion, DEPELFederal University of Sao Joao del ReiSão João del-ReiBrazil

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