Effects of Indirect Corrective Feedback With and Without Written Languaging on L2 Written Accuracy: A Multitask Intervention Study
- 22 Downloads
The present study investigated the effect of written languaging (WL) based on indirect written corrective feedback (WCF) on Chinese EFL (English as a foreign language) learners’ written accuracy. WL refers to using the written mode to reflect upon and reason about language use. Two groups of students participated in the study over 16 weeks. Both received indirect WCF on four essays, with one group further engaging in WL and the other, without. Baseline writing and its revisions, respectively used as pre-tests and posttests, as well as immediate and delayed revisions of the four essays were employed to measure the two groups’ written accuracy. Data analyses revealed that although both groups significantly improved their written accuracy, no significant differences were observed between them, signifying the insignificant role of WL in enhancing the efficacy of indirect WCF. In light of published literature and participants’ languaging quality, the study concludes that WL could play a diagnostic role in promoting the efficacy of indirect WCF.
KeywordsIndirect written corrective feedback Written languaging Written accuracy Multitask intervention study
We would like to acknowledge the anonymous reviewers' insightful and inspiring feedback as well as the valuable comments of Professor Chuming Wang and Dr Shulin Yu on earlier drafts of this paper. Our sincere thanks also go to the student participants of the study. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education Project of the Centre for Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, and the Bilingual Cognition and Development Lab, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies (GDUFS), P. R. China, as well as the GDUFS teaching research grant (No. GWJY2017008) and the GDUFS International Language-service-oriented Foreign Language and Literature Creative Construction Project (No. 101-GK17GS52).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Charles, C. M., & Mertler, C. A. (2004). Introduction to educational research (4th ed.). Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.Google Scholar
- Jia, D. (2015). An experimental study on the effect of written languaging on English writing revision. Unpublished master’s thesis. Lanzhou University, Lanzhou.Google Scholar
- Lantolf, J., & Thorne, S. (2006). Sociocultural Theory and the genesis of second language development. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Liang, Z. (2014). Effect of written languaging on second language writing. Unpublished master’s thesis. Xiangtan University, Xiangtan.Google Scholar
- Schmidt, R. (1995). Attention and awareness in foreign language learning. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
- Suzuki, W. (2009). Improving Japanese university students' second language writing accuracy: Effects of languaging. Annual Review of English Language Education in Japan,20, 81–90.Google Scholar
- Swain, M. (2006). Languaging, agency and collaboration in advanced language proficiency. In H. Byrnes (Ed.), Advanced language learning: The contribution of Halliday and Vygotsky (pp. 95–108). London: Continuum.Google Scholar
- Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT press.Google Scholar
- Wolff, D. (2000). Some reflections on the importance of writing in foreign language learning. In I. Play & K. P. Schneider (Eds.), Language use, language acquisition and language history (pp. 213–226). Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier.Google Scholar
- Yilmaz, M. (2016). Improving Turkish EFL learners' writing accuracy: Effects of written languaging and languaging types. Procedia: Social and Behaviour Sciences,232, 413–420.Google Scholar