Over-Education and Income of the Distance Learner

  • Li FengliangEmail author
  • Wang Liang
Regular Article


With the expansion of distance education, the problem of over-education in the system of distance education has emerged, but it seems that none of the existing empirical studies have addressed this issue. This study conducts an empirical and comparative analysis of the problem of over-education between distance education and face-to-face education by analyzing nationwide adult data in China. The empirical results show that distance-education learners are more likely to experience over-education compared to face-to-face education learners; however, over-education does not have a significantly negative relationship with distance-education learners’ income.


Over-education Distance education Face-to-face education Income 



We would like to thank Professor Rory McGreal, Professor Mohamed Ally, Professor Hamish Coates, and six anonymous reviewers for their useful comments and suggestions.


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Copyright information

© De La Salle University 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of EducationTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

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