As a Happy Kindergarten Teacher: The Mediating Effect of Happiness Between Role Stress and Turnover Intention
Kindergarten teacher turnover is an important topic in education, especially in East Asia. Two approaches, the disease model and positive psychology perspective, are integrated to investigate kindergarten teachers’ turnover intention, and the “happy/productive teacher” hypothesis that happy teachers have lower turnover intention is tested. A comprehensive model that integrates role stress, subjective well-being (SWB), and turnover intention is proposed herein. A mail survey was conducted, consisting of 272 kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used for the data analysis. The “happy/productive teacher” concept was supported in that teachers’ SWB has a negative effect on turnover intention. Role stress was found to have a negative effect on SWB and a positive indirect effect on turnover intention completely mediated by SWB. In conclusion, role stress and SWB both have significant effects on turnover intention. However, SWB is a more direct and powerful antecedent than role stress. This study has important theoretical and practical implications for kindergarten teachers’ turnover intention from the positive psychology perspective, and may contribute to the positive education in Asia.
KeywordsHappiness Kindergarten teacher Positive education Role stress Subjective well-being Turnover intention
- Arbuckle, J. L. (2012). Amos 23.0 user’s guide. Chicago: IBM SPSS.Google Scholar
- Barak, M. E. M., Nissly, J. A., & Levin, A. (2001). Antecedents to retention and turnover among child welfare, social work, and other human service employees: What can we learn from past research? A review and metanalysis. Social Service Review, 75(4), 625–661. https://doi.org/10.1086/323166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chang, C. (2018). The revision of nurses’ indigenized well-being scale: Elaboration and re-validation (Unpublished master’s thesis). Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan.Google Scholar
- Chen, Y.-G. (2009). Public/private preschool teachers’ turnover in Taiwan: A test on correlative variables and theories. Journal of Research on Elementary and Secondary Education, 33, 53–77.Google Scholar
- Chen, Y.-G., & Cheng, J.-N. (2009). A study on the kindergarten and childcare center teachers’ turnover intention in Taiwan: Exploring the effect of the demographics, social exchange, ethical fit, distributive justice, job loading and salary. Journal of National Pingtung University of Education, 32, 1–34.Google Scholar
- Chien, C.-L., Yu, L., Chang, C., & Jone, K.-Y. (2017). Beyond “flourishing”: The development and validation of the nurses’ indigenized well-being scale in Taiwan. Journal of Education and Psychology, 40, 93–125.Google Scholar
- Cropanzano, R., & Wright, T. A. (2001). When a “happy” worker is really a “productive” worker: A review and further refinement of the happy-productive worker thesis. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 53(3), 182–199. https://doi.org/10.1037//1061-4087.53.3.182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fogarty, T. J., Singh, J., Rhoads, G. K., & Moore, R. K. (2000). Antecedents and consequences of burnout in accounting: Beyond the role stress model. Behavioral Research in Accounting, 12, 31–67.Google Scholar
- Fried, Y., Shirom, A., Gilboa, S., & Cooper, C. L. (2008). The mediating effects of job satisfaction and propensity to leave on role stress—job performance relationships: Combining meta-analysis and structural equation modeling. International Journal of Stress Management, 15, 305–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ganotice, F. A., Yeung, S. S., Beguina, L. A., & Villarosa, J. B. (2016). In search for H.E.R.O among Filipino teachers: The relationship of positive psychological capital and work-related outcomes. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 25, 407–414. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-015-0267-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hair, J. F., Black, C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Harn, N. J. C. (2002). A study on the relationships among the role stress, personality traits, and job satisfaction of the teachers as student affair jobs (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi/ccd=aAQ8lf/record?r1=2&h1=0.
- Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Keyes, C. L. (2002). Well-being in the workplace and its relationships to business outcomes: A review of the Gallup studies. In C. L. Keyes & J. Haidt (Eds.), Flourishing: The positive person and the good life (pp. 205–224). Washington DC: American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10594-009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- International Labour Organization (2012). Right beginning: Early childhood education and educators. Geneva: The Author. Retrieved from, http://www.fruehe-chancen.de/fileadmin/PDF/Archiv/ilo_2012_right_beginnings_ecec.pdf.
- Ivancevich, J. M., & Matteson, M. T. (1980). Stress and work: A managerial perspective. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.Google Scholar
- Lin, F.-C. (2009). A study on job stress and turnover intention of preschool teachers. Journal of National Pingtung University of Education, 32, 65–100.Google Scholar
- Lyubomirsky, S. (2007). The how of happiness: A scientific approach to getting the life you want. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
- Pareek, U. (1993). Organization role stress: Training instruments in HRD and OD (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Tata Mcgraw Hill.Google Scholar
- Taur, W.-J. (1998). A study on the turnover intention and the related factors of rural elementary school teachers in Hualien (Unpublished master’s thesis). National Hualien Teachers College, Taiwan.Google Scholar
- Vandenberghe, C., Panaccio, A., Bentein, K., Mignonac, K., & Roussel, P. (2011). Assessing longitudinal change of and dynamic relationships among role stressors, job attitudes, turnover intention, and well-being in neophyte newcomers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 652–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wright, T. A., & Cropanzano, R. (2007). The happy/productive worker thesis revisited. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 26, 269–307.Google Scholar