Advertisement

The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 355–364 | Cite as

Investigating Teacher Pedagogical Changes When Implementing Problem-Based Learning in a Year 5 Mathematics Classroom in Taiwan

  • Hui-Chuan Li
  • Tsung-Lung TsaiEmail author
Regular Article

Abstract

Over the recent decades, much empirical evidence has shown the benefits of problem-based learning (PBL) over traditional teacher-centred pedagogy. However, research on problem-based learning (PBL) has focused more on students’ learning outcomes and less on what it might take for teachers to implement it, especially in primary school and in education systems such as Taiwan, where its principles deviate from customary practice. Issues concerning how PBL, which initially derived from the adult medical education field, can be applied to primary education, remain poorly understood. This study examines what was involved for a teacher while she implemented a 1-year PBL intervention in a year 5 (ages 10–11) mathematics classroom in Taiwan. On the basis of the evidence in this paper, we provide a realistic account of the teacher’s pedagogical practice and how she changed, or further developed her pedagogies in order to adapt to PBL. The findings from our study brought important messages for teachers and educators when implementing PBL at primary education level. With a focus on the teacher’s pedagogical changes, implications for primary teachers when implementing PBL are discussed.

Keywords

Problem-based learning (PBL) Primary teachers Pedagogical changes Taiwan 

References

  1. Baliga, G., Case, J., Merkle, W., Stephan, F., & Wiehagen, W. (2008). When unlearning helps. Information and Computation, 206(5), 694–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ball, D. L., Lubienski, S., & Mewborn, D. (2001). Research on teaching mathematics: The unsolved problem of teachers’ mathematical knowledge. In V. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (4th ed., pp. 433–456). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  3. Barrows, H. S., & Myers, A. C. (1993). Problem-based learning in secondary schools. Springfield: Problem-Based Learning Institute, Lanipher High School, and Southern Illinois Medical School.Google Scholar
  4. Barrows, H. S., & Tamblyn, R. M. (1980). Problem-based learning: An approach to medical education. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  5. Bridges, S., Botelho, M., Green, J., & Chau, A. M. (2012). Multimodality in problem-based learning (PBL): An interactional ethnography. In S. Bridges, C. McGrath, & T. L. Whitehill (Eds.), Problem-based learning in clinical education (Vol. 8, pp. 99–120). The Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brophy, J. E. (2010). Motivating students to learn. New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  7. Carlucci, L., & Case, J. (2013). On the necessity of U-shaped learning. Topics in Cognitive Science, 5(1), 56–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chiu, M.-S., & Whitebread, D. (2011). Taiwanese teachers’ implementation of a new ‘constructivist mathematics curriculum’: How cognitive and affective issues are addressed. International Journal of Educational Development, 31(2), 196–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chye, S. Y., Liau, A. K., & Liu, W. C. (2013). Student teachers’ motivation and perceptions of E-portfolio in the context of problem-based learning. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 22(4), 367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark, A. (2006). Changing classroom practice to include the project approach. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 8(2). http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v8n2/clark.html.
  11. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th ed.). New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Creswell, J. W. (2012). Qualitative enquiry and research design: choosing among five approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Gallagher, S. A. (2015). The role of problem-based learning in developing creative expertise. Asia Pacific Education Review, 16(2), 225–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gijbels, D., Dochy, F., Van den Bossche, P., & Segers, M. (2005). Effects of problem-based learning: A meta-analysis from the angle of assessment. Review of Educational Research, 75(1), 27–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hak, T., & Maguire, P. (2000). Group process: The black box of studies on problem-based learning. Academic Medicine, 75, 769–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hmelo-Silver, C. E., Duncan, R. G., & Chinn, C. A. (2007). Scaffolding and achievement in problem-based and inquiry learning: a response to Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006). Educational Psychologist, 42(2), 99–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hung, W. (2011). Theory to reality: A few issues in implementing problem-based learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 59(4), 529–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hung, W., Mehl, K., & Holen, J. B. (2013). The relationships between problem design and learning process in problem-based learning environments: Two cases. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 22(4), 635–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jacobs, V. R., Lamb, L. L. C., & Philipp, R. A. (2010). Professional noticing of children’s mathematical thinking. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 41, 169–202.Google Scholar
  20. Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 4(2), 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li, H.-C. (2012). Implementing problem-based learning in a Taiwanese elementary classroom: A case study of challenges and strategies. Research in Mathematics Education, 14(1), 89–90. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li, H.-C. & Stylianides, A. J. (2018). An examination of the roles of the teacher and students during a problem-based learning intervention: Lessons learned from a study in a Taiwanese primary mathematics classroom. Interactive Learning Environments, 26(1), 106–117.Google Scholar
  23. Lewis, R., Romi, S., Qui, X., & Katz, Y. J. (2005). Teachers’ classroom discipline and student misbehavior in Australia. China and Israel, Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(6), 729–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lubienski, S. T. (2000). Problem solving as a means toward mathematics for all: An exploratory look through a class lens. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 31(4), 454–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Reeve, J., Jang, H., Carrell, D., Jeon, S., & Barch, J. (2004). Enhancing students’ engagement by increasing teachers’ autonomy support. Motivation and Emotion, 28(2), 147–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schmidt, H. G. (1983). Problem-based learning: Rationale and description. Medical Education, 17, 11–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schmidt, H. G., Van der Molen, H. T., Te Winkel, W. W. R., & Wijnen, W. H. F. W. (2009). Constructivist, problem-based learning does work: A meta-analysis of curricular comparisons involving a single medical school. Educational Psychologist, 44, 227–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schoenfeld, A., & Kilpatrick, J. (2013). A US perspective on the implementation of inquiry-based learning in mathematics. ZDM-International Journal on Mathematics Education, 45(6), 901–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shein, P. P., & Chiou, W.-B. (2011). Teachers as role models for students’ learning styles. Social Behavior and Personality, 39(8), 1097–1104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tsai, T.-L. & Li, H.-C. (2017). International comparative studies in mathematics education: Are we obsessed with the international rankings of measured educational outcomes? International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 48(8), 1262–1267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Webb, N. M. (2009). The teacher’s role in promoting collaborative dialogue in the classroom. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wijnia, L., Loyens, S. M. M., van Gog, T., Derous, E., & Schmidt, H. G. (2014). Is there a role for direct instruction in problem-based learning? Comparing student-constructed versus integrated model answers. Learning and Instruction, 34, 22–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wirkala, C., & Kuhn, D. (2011). Problem-based learning in K–12 education: Is it effective and how does it achieve its effects? American Educational Research Journal, 48(5), 1157–1186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yin, R. K. (2017). Case study research and applications (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© De La Salle University 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei DarussalamBandar Seri BegawanBrunei Darussalam
  2. 2.Department of MathematicsNational Changhua University of EducationChanghua CityTaiwan

Personalised recommendations