PAIT-Survey Follow-Up: Changes in Albuminuria in Hypertensive Diabetic Patients with Mild-Moderate Chronic Kidney Disease

  • Francesco Fici
  • Elif Ari Bakir
  • Elif Ilkay Yüce
  • Serdal Kanuncu
  • Wim Makel
  • Bahar Arican Tarim
  • Nicolás Roberto RoblesEmail author
Original article



Albuminuria is an early marker of kidney disease and reduction of albuminuria translates into a decreased occurrence of cardiovascular and renal outcomes.


To evaluate the changes in the prevalence of albuminuria in diabetic hypertensive patients treated with several combinations of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system with calcium channel blockers.


We analysed data from 668 unselected patients from the PAIT survey (mean age 60.4 ± 10.2 years, prevalence of males 38%), with and without albuminuria, maintained for 6 months with the previous treatment with amlodipine-valsartan, amlodipine perindopril, lercanidipine-enalapril, verapamil-trandolapril, nitrendipine-enalapril and felodipine-ramipril Albuminuria was assessed, as urinary albumin–creatinine ratio, using a Multistic-Clinitek device analyzer. Microalbuminuria was defined as a loss of 3.4–33.9 mg albumin/mmol creatinine (30–300 mg/g) and macroalbuminuria as a loss of > 33.9 mg albumin/mmol creatinine (> 300 mg/g). Blood pressure was measured with a validated digital device.


At baseline, albuminuria was present in 310 subjects (46.4%) (microalbuminuria in 263 (84.8%), macroalbuminuria in 15.2%), and normoalbuminuria in 53.6% 358. After 6 months, the prevalence of subjects with albuminuria was significantly lowered (p < 0.01) by 23.5% (microalbuminuria − 23.9%, p < 0.01 and macroalbuminuria − 21.3%). The prevalence of subjects with microalbuminuria was reduced with all treatments: amlodipine-valsartan − 15.6%, amlodipine-perindopril − 11.8%, lercanidipine-enalapril − 41.3% and verapamil-trandolapril − 19.2%. Data with nitrendipine-enalapril and felodipine-ramipril were not analyzed, due to the low number of patients. The frequency of patients with normoalbuminuria was significantly higher (p < 0.01) with lercanidipine-enalapril compared with any other treatment. Blood pressure was significantly (p < 0.01) reduced, with a similar effect between treatments.


The treatments decrease the prevalence of subjects with albuminuria, showing a significant difference among the different drug combinations, favoring the use of new dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, such as lercanidipine, combined with RAAS inhibitors, to control albuminuria in diabetic hypertensive patients.


Albuminuria Chronic kidney disease Diabetes mellitus Calcium antagonists Lercanidipine 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

No conflict of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Hypertension 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Catedra de Riesgo CardiovascularUniversidad de SalamancaSalamancaSpain
  2. 2.Department of NephrologyBahcesehir University HospitalIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Kelkit State HospitalGumushaneTurkey
  4. 4.Family Health CenterDefne-HatayTurkey
  5. 5.Clinical Research Facilities International B.VSchaijkThe Netherlands
  6. 6.Kartal Research and Education HospitalIstanbulTurkey
  7. 7.Hospital Universitario de BadajozBadajozSpain
  8. 8.Unidad de Hipertensión Arterial, Hospital Infanta CristinaBadajozSpain

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