Kounis Syndrome: Report of Two Cases with Peculiar Presentation and Diagnostic Issues
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Kounis Syndrome (KS) is a coronary spasm caused by an allergic reaction that leads to myocardial ischemia or infarction . The main pathological mechanism of KS is the epicardial coronary artery vasospasm due to the release of inflammatory mediators during the allergic reaction. These release is determined by the degranulation and activation of mast cells of the coronary artery wall, leading to vasospasm, erosion/rupture of atherosclerotic plaques or intrastent thrombosis, depending on the coronary anatomy .
Since it is an uncommon cause of acute cardiac events and, even more, it frequently goes unnoticed, many gaps in evidence are still presents . Starting from its prevalence estimation and going to the therapeutic option through the diagnostic issues still many questions...
KeywordsKounis syndrome Acute coronary syndrome ST elevated myocardial infarction
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Conflict of interest
All the authors declares that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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