Sociodemographic Determinants in Preventive Tests for Cardiovascular Diseases in a Representative Sample of the Adult Greek Population

  • Georgia Pallikarona
  • Chara Tzavara
  • Christine Dimitrakaki
  • Yannis Tountas
Original Article
  • 38 Downloads

Abstract

Objectives

The purpose of the current study is to investigate the use of preventive healthcare services by the adult Greek population and the factors that determine such use.

Methods

Data were obtained from a national household survey (Hellas Health I) conducted during 2006. The survey population consisted of 1,005 individuals, with a mean age of 47.4 years. Candidate respondents were selected by means of a three-stage, proportional to size, sampling design. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were used (p < 0.05).

Results

Among the determinants of performance of screening tests, gender, age, marital status, the presence of chronic illness and self-reported health status and the use of a family doctor play an important role.

Conclusions

According to the findings of our study, screening tests are performed in a low percentage of the Greek population, even for individuals at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. It is obvious that doctors should focus more on such population groups, while national health policies promoting screening tests and prevention in general are warranted.

Keywords

Greece Preventive healthcare services Sociodemographic determinants 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank all the study participants for taking part in the study. The authors declare that no external funding, apart from the support of the authors’ institution, was available for this study. The authors also declare that there are no conflicts of interest in this study.

References

  1. 1.
    Marin MG, Zitter JN. Expenditures associated with preventive healthcare. Prev Med. 2004;39:856–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nelson DE, Bland S, Powell-Griner E, Klein R, Wells HE, Hogelin G, Marks JS. State trends in health risk factors and receipt of clinical preventive services among US adults during the 1990s. JAMA. 2002;287(20):2659–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA. 2004;291(10):1238–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Evans CD, Eurich DT, Taylor JG, Blackburn DF. The Collaborative Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Primary Care (CCARP) study. Pharmacotherapy. 2010;30(8):766–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gupta D, Wenger NK. Guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women: international challenges and opportunities. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2012;10(3):379–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice: executive summary. Fourth joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. Eur Heart J 2007;28(19):2375–2414.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pearson TA, Blair SN, Daniels SR, Eckel RH, Fair JM, Fortmann SP, et al. AHA guidelines for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and stroke: 2002 Update. Consensus panel guide to comprehensive risk reduction for adult patients without coronary or other atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Circulation. 2002;106:388–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mosialos E, Allin S, Davaki K. Analyzing the Greek health system: a tale of fragmentation and inertia. Health Econ. 2005;14(S1):151–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tountas Y, Karnaki P, Pavi E, Souliotis K. The ‘unexpected’ growth of the private health sector in Greece. Health Policy. 2005;74:167–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tountas Y, Oikonomou N, Pallikarona G, Dimitrakaki C, Tzavara C, Souliotis K, Mariolis A, Pappa E, Kontodimopoulos N, Niakas D. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic determinants of health services utilization in Greece: the Hellas Health I study. Health Serv Manage Res. 2011;24(1):8–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Esomar. Standard demographic segmentation, a system of international socio-economic classification of respondents to survey research, 1994 [online]. http://www.esomar.org/index.php/glossary-s.html. Accessed 4 Jan 2012.
  12. 12.
    Ware JE, Kosinski M, Keller SD. SF-36 Physical and mental health summary scales: a user’s manual. Boston: The Health Institute; 1994.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hanratty B, Zhang T, Whitehead M. How close have universal health systems come to achieving equity in use of curative services? A systematic review. Int J Health Serv. 2007;37:89–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pardell H, Roure E, Drygas W, Morava E, Nussel E, Puska P, et al. East-West differences in reported preventive practices: a comparative study of six European areas of the WHO-CINDI program. Eur J Public Health. 2001;11(4):393–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ealovega M, Tabaei B, Brandle M, Burke R, Herman W. Opportunistic screening for diabetes in routine clinical practice. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:9–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Viera A, Thorpe J, Garrett M. Effects of sex, age and visits on receipt of preventive healthcare services: a secondary analysis of national data. BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6:15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Waldron I. Sex differences in illness incidence, prognosis and mortality: issues and evidence. Soc Sci Med. 1983;17:1107–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Verbrugge LM, Wingard DL. Sex differentials in health and mortality. Women Health. 1987;12:103–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bertakis KD, Azaris R, Helms LJ, Callahan EJ, Robbins JA. Gender differences in the utilization of health services. J Fam Pract. 2000;49:147–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kern L, Callahan M, Brillon D, Vargas M, Mushlin A. Glucose testing and insufficient follow-up of abnormal results: a cohort study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6:87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stewart F. Root causes of violent conflict in developing countries. BMJ. 2002;324:342–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mosialos E. Utilization of healthcare services in Greece [in Greek]. Athens: Anixi publications; 1990. Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cornelius LJ, Smith PL, Simpson PL. What factors hinder women of colors from obtaining preventive health care? Am J Public Health. 2002;92:535–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Steven ID, Dickens E, Thomas SA, Browing C, Eckerman E. Preventive care and continuity of attendance: is there a risk? Aust Fam Physician. 1998;27(Suppl. 1):S44–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jm Lambrew, DeFriese Gh, Carey TS, Ricketss TC, Biddle AK. The effects of having a regular doctor on access to primary care. Med Care. 1996;34:138–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Finkelstein M. Preventive screening. What factors influence testing. Can Fam Physician. 2002;48:1494–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georgia Pallikarona
    • 1
  • Chara Tzavara
    • 1
  • Christine Dimitrakaki
    • 1
  • Yannis Tountas
    • 1
  1. 1.Porto RaftiGreece

Personalised recommendations