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Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 431–442 | Cite as

The Role of DNA Methylation in Renal Cell Carcinoma

  • Brittany N. Lasseigne
  • James D. Brooks
Review Article
  • 93 Downloads

Abstract

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common kidney cancer and includes several molecular and histological subtypes with different clinical characteristics. While survival rates are high if RCC is diagnosed when still confined to the kidney and treated definitively, there are no specific diagnostic screening tests available and symptoms are rare in early stages of the disease. Management of advanced RCC has changed significantly with the advent of targeted therapies, yet survival is usually increased by months due to acquired resistance to these therapies. DNA methylation, the covalent addition of a methyl group to a cytosine, is essential for normal development and transcriptional regulation, but becomes altered commonly in cancer. These alterations result in broad transcriptional changes, including in tumor suppressor genes. Because DNA methylation is one of the earliest molecular changes in cancer and is both widespread and stable, its role in cancer biology, including RCC, has been extensively studied. In this review, we examine the role of DNA methylation in RCC disease etiology and progression, the preclinical use of DNA methylation alterations as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers, and the potential for DNA methylation-directed therapies.

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

A patent is in process for the DNA methylation markers identified in the authors’ cited work: Lasseigne et al., BMC Medicine, 2014.

Funding

BNL was funded by the William J. Maier III Fellowship in Cancer Prevention (Prevent Cancer Foundation). JDB was funded by NIH/NCI (CA196387) and the Department of Defense (W81XWH-16-1-0553).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.HudsonAlpha Institute for BiotechnologyHuntsvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of UrologyStanford University Medical CenterStanfordUSA

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