Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 259–268 | Cite as

The Importance of Standardization on Analyzing Circulating RNA

  • Inyoul Lee
  • David Baxter
  • Min Young Lee
  • Kelsey Scherler
  • Kai WangEmail author
Review Article


Circulating RNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs), have recently emerged as non-invasive disease biomarkers. Despite enthusiasm and numerous reports on disease-associated circulating miRNAs, currently there is no circulating miRNA-based diagnostic in use. In addition, there are many contradictory reports on the concentration changes of specific miRNA in circulation. Here we review the impact of various technical and non-technical factors related to circulating miRNA measurement and elucidate the importance of having a general guideline for sample preparation and concentration measurement in studying circulating RNA.


Sample Collection Time Extracellular miRNAs miRNA Concentration Biofluid Sample qPCR Platform 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Authors would like to thank Taek-kyun Kim, Xiaogang Wu and Vikas Ghai for helpful discussion, and Deborah Min for editing the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest statement

The authors (Kai Wang, Inyoul Lee, David Baxter, Min Young Lee, and Kelsey Scherler) declare that they have no competing interests.


This work is supported by grant from NIH (U01HL126496-02) and research contracts from DOD (W911NF-10-2-0111) and DTRA (HDTRA1-13-C-0055).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Inyoul Lee
    • 1
  • David Baxter
    • 1
  • Min Young Lee
    • 1
  • Kelsey Scherler
    • 1
  • Kai Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute for Systems BiologySeattleUSA

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