Reply to Li et al.: Comment on “Effects of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Cycling Time Trial Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”
We thank Li et al.  for their comments on our recent systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on cycling time trial performance . In their letter, the authors pointed out that the different prandial state of participants in studies summarized in our review is a concern and warrants further discussion. They then reanalyzed the metadata, separating the reviewed studies into two subgroups—fasted and fed state—and concluded that a CHO mouth rinse may have an ergogenic benefit when exercise is performed in a fasted state but not in a fed state.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this letter.
Conflicts of interest
Cayque Brietzke, Paulo Estevão Franco-Alvarenga and Flávio Oliveira Pires declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this letter.
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